Mycobacterium fortuitum as a cause of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: case report and review of the literature
© Jiang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 9 December 2011
Accepted: 10 May 2012
Published: 8 June 2012
Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PD-peritonitis) due to Mycobacterium spp is uncommon. Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTB) PD-peritonitis can present in a similar fashion to more common causes of bacterial PD-peritonitis. We describe the first reported case of multiresistant Mycobacterium fortuitum PD-peritonitis in an Australian patient.
A 38 year-old woman developed mild PD-peritonitis during an overseas holiday. Treatment was complicated by delayed diagnosis, requirement for special investigations, treatment with multiple antibiotics, and conversion to haemodialysis following removal of her Tenckhoff catheter.
This case demonstrates the diagnostic yield of pursuing further investigations in cases of initially culture-negative, problematic PD-peritonitis. A systematic review of the literature identified only 17 reports of M. fortuitum PD-peritonitis. Similar to our case, a delay in microbiological diagnosis was frequently noted and the Tenckhoff catheter was commonly removed at the time of diagnosis. The type and duration of antibiotic therapy also varied widely so the optimum treatment appears to be poorly defined.
KeywordsMycobacterium fortuitum Peritoneal dialysis Peritonitis Treatment
Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PD-peritonitis) due to Mycobacterium spp is uncommon, particularly in patients receiving treatment in developed countries. Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTB) PD-peritonitis can present in a similar fashion to more common causes of bacterial PD-peritonitis. However, treatment is often complicated by apparent culture negative dialysate effluent, prolonged treatment courses requiring multiple antibiotics and Tenckhoff catheter removal requiring a change to haemodialysis. We describe the first case of M. fortuitum PD-peritonitis in an Australian patient, requiring Tenckhoff catheter removal and permanent conversion to haemodialysis. The literature is reviewed regarding the presentation and treatment of this condition.
A 38 year-old woman with end-stage renal disease due to Factor-H deficient haemolytic uraemic syndrome had been treated with peritoneal dialysis for 6 months without complication. The patient practiced continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with four exchanges per day of two litres of 2.5% dextrose, each of 4 hour duration. The patient had no prior comorbidities nor history of significant infections. She embarked on a cruise ship holiday in the Pacific. Three days after arriving in North America, she developed nausea which progressed over one week to include mild abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Although her dialysate effluent was cloudy, the mildness of her symptoms prompted the patient to continue the final two weeks of her holiday without any antibacterial treatment. She had no exit site symptoms at any point and reported adherence to her aseptic technique training. Upon return to Australia she promptly presented to hospital.
On presentation to hospital she was febrile (38°C) and tachycardic (108 beats/minute) with a blood pressure of 112/85 mmHg. On examination she had mild abdominal distension and right iliac fossa tenderness. Bowel sounds were present and the Tenckhoff catheter exit site was unremarkable. The peritoneal fluid was turbid with >100 x106/mL leukocytes, predominantly neutrophils.
The patient underwent surgical removal of the Tenckhoff catheter, disruption of loculations and lavage of the peritoneal space. Her subsequent antibiotic regimen of oral moxifloxacin, clarithromycin and doxycycline was complicated by the development of intolerable nausea. She was then established on oral moxifloxacin and linezolid for six months with a sustained clinical response. Treatment duration was empirically determined. After completion of her course of antibiotics re-insertion of the Tenckhoff catheter was attempted but abandoned after multiple intraperitoneal adhesions were found.
Published reports of M fortuitum PD-peritonitis
Location of the report
Time from admission to positive culture
Houston, USA 
15 y/o male
S – Amikacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefoxitin
IV Amikacin and IV cefoxitin. (c)
Abscess drainage required
Portland, USA 
57 y/o male
PO Erythromycin, IV cephapirin, IV tobramycin.(6 days)
Catheter leak. No abdominal pain. Patient died at 6 days.
Copenhagen, Denmark 
35 y/o male
S – Amikacin, tobramycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
IV Amikacin, IV methicillin (c)
In renal transplant perioperative period.
Cleveland, USA 
32 y/o male
S – Amikacin, tetracycline
Amikacin, tetracycline (1 month); ciprofloxacin (c, d)
Reduced aural acuity after amikacin.
R – gentamicin, tobramycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole
Hong Kong, China 
65 y/o male
PO Levofloxacin, PO clarithromycin (12 months)
Seoul, Korea 
54 y/o female
R – isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, streptomycin
IV Ceftizotime, IV amikacin (c)
71 y/o male
IP Amikacin and cefoxitin (3 weeks); PO doxycycline and rifampicin (3 months)
83 y/o female
Ciprofloxacin and clofazimine (c, d)
Madrid, Spain 
42 y/o male
IV Amikacin and PO doxycycline (20 days)
40 y/o male
IV Amikacin and PO doxycycline (1 month)
Washington, USA 
33 y/o male
S – amikacin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, cefmetazole, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, azithromycin
PO Clarithromycin and PO trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (6 months)
71 y/o female
R – tobramycin, erythromycin, doxycycline, minocycline, cefoxitin
IV Amikacin, PO clarithromycin, PO trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (3 months)
S – clarithromycin, cefmetazole, imipenem, sulfisoxazole, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin
I – amikacin, cefoxitin
Saudi Arabia 
45 y/o female
PO Isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol. (6 months)
Nashville, USA 
16 y/o male
PO Ciprofloxacin, PO trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (c)
Kfar-Saba, Israel 
65 y/o male
Minocycline (1 monthd)
Tokyo, Japan 
50 y/o male
Amikacin, sulbactam (c,d)
Singapore, Singapore b
78 y/o female
S – tobramycin, linezolid, clarithromycin, amikacin
IP amikacin, PO ciprofloxacin (3 months)
Patient died at 2 months from malignancy
The duration of symptoms prior to hospital presentation was incompletely reported and a delay in microbiological diagnosis was commonplace (median 7 days, interquartile range 4-8 days). Intra-abdominal loculations and collections occurred in 2 previous reports. The Tenckhoff catheter was removed in all but two reported cases and mostly at the time of diagnosis. The duration of antibiotic therapy varied widely (between 1 and 12 months), so the optimum treatment appears to be poorly defined. In our patient the 6 month duration was chosen based on typically reported dosing periods. Antibiotic sensitivity by disc diffusion was reported in 10 of the 17 reports. M. fortuitum was almost universally sensitive to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and clarithromycin. Resistance to cephalosporins, tetracyclines and other macrolides was variable. Similarly, there was marked variability in the antibiotic regimens utilised and the rationale for these choices were incompletely described. The more common antibiotics utilised included amikacin in 7 reports, ciprofloxacin in 4 reports and doxycycline in 3 reports with combination therapy common. Only one death was reported in a patient with M. fortuitum PD-peritonitis (Table 1).
We describe the first case of M. fortuitum PD-peritonitis and the third case of any NTM PD-peritonitis in an Australian patient [15, 16]. The place and mode of infection remain unclear. Our patient had recently returned from a one month overseas holiday traversing the Pacific, the Caribbean and North America. Given the slow growth rate of M. fortuitum her peritoneum may have been inoculated either before leaving Australia, whilst travelling through the Caribbean or North America. The slow growth rate of M. fortuitum presumably accounts for the mild and indolent development of symptoms and may be a clinical characteristic of NTM PD-peritonitis. The subacute course may predispose to the chronic sequelae of infection. Our case brings the number of cases with reported intra-abdominal loculations to three in eighteen. This proportion could well be an underestimate with only a minority of reported patients having imaging or persisting with peritoneal dialysis.
The incidence of PD-peritonitis due to Mycobacterium spp. in Australia has not been described. On the basis of registry data, it is anticipated to be low given the relatively high cure rates of all cases of PD-peritonitis in Australia after a median duration of treatment of 13 days with primarily vancomycin or cephalosporins with/without gentamicin . There is considerable variability in the proportion of cases of PD-peritonitis that are culture-negative in Australian and New Zealand renal units which may reflect differences in disease prevalence and/or diagnostic and management practices .
Guidelines of the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) recommend that a negative dialysate culture at 3 days in the presence of ongoing clinical evidence of peritonitis calls for specialized cultures for atypical causes of peritonitis . If there is a clinical suspicion of infection with Mycobacterium spp., repeated smears and centrifuge of effluent sediment with a combination of solid- and fluid-medium culture are suggested.
The safety and timing for attempted re-insertion of Tenckhoff catheters after treatment, and technique survival, is incompletely reported. The ISPD guidelines recommend consideration of catheter removal following a diagnosis of Mycobacterial peritonitis although data supporting this recommendation are limited.
Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are a rare but serious cause of PD-peritonitis with high rates of Tenckhoff removal and conversion to haemodialysis. This is the first report of M. fortuitum PD-peritonitis reported in Australia and the diagnosis was prompted by inadequate response to empiric antibiotics and confirmed by special investigations that are uncommonly utilised in most cases of PD-peritonitis.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis
Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis
- LaRocco MT, Mortensen JE, Robinson A: Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis in a patient undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1986, 4 (2): 161-164. 10.1016/0732-8893(86)90151-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pulliam JP, Vernon DD, Alexander SR, et al: Nontuberculous mycobacterial peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 1983, 2 (6): 610-614.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kolmos HJ, Brahm M, Bruun B: Peritonitis with Mycobacterium fortuitum in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1992, 24 (6): 801-803. 10.3109/00365549209062468.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Woods GL, Hall GS, Schreiber MJ: Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Clin Microbiol. 1986, 23 (4): 786-788.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tang S, Tang AW, Lam WO, et al: Successful treatment of Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis without Tenckhoff catheter removal in CAPD. Perit Dial Int. 2003, 23 (3): 304-305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi CW, Cha DR, Kwon YJ, et al: Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Korean J Intern Med. 1993, 8 (1): 25-27.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- White R, Abreo K, Flanagan R, et al: Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 1993, 22 (4): 581-587.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soriano F, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Gomez-Garces JL, et al: Two possibly related cases of Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989, 8 (10): 895-897. 10.1007/BF01963778.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vera G, Lew SQ: Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis in two patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Nephrol. 1999, 19 (5): 586-589. 10.1159/000013524.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Youmbissi JT, Malik QT, Ajit SK, et al: Non tuberculous mycobacterium peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Nephrol. 2001, 14 (2): 132-135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dunmire RB, Breyer JA: Nontuberculous mycobacterial peritonitis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: case report and review of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Am J Kidney Dis. 1991, 18 (1): 126-130.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hod T, Kushnir R, Paitan Y, et al: Mycobacterium fortuitum infection in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol. 2008, 70 (6): 546-553.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawamoto S, Otani K, Kawaguchi Y, et al: Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis associated with CAPD: diagnosis by a molecular biology technique. Perit Dial Int. 1999, 19 (6): 592-593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Renaud CJ, Subramanian S, Tambyah PA, et al: The clinical course of rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterial peritoneal dialysis infections in Asians: a case series and literature review. Nephrology. 2011, 16 (2): 174-179. 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2010.01370.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Linton IM, Leahy SI, Thomas GW: Mycobacterium gastri peritonitis in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Aust N Z J Med. 1986, 16 (2): 224-225. 10.1111/j.1445-5994.1986.tb01155.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang SH, Senanayake S, Talaulikar GS: Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis due to Mycobacterium smegmatis. Perit Dial Int. 2011, 31 (2): 215-216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fahim M, Hawley CM, McDonald SP, et al: Culture-negative peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients in Australia: predictors, treatment, and outcomes in 435 cases. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010, 55 (4): 690-697. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.11.015.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li PK, Szeto CC, Piraino B, et al: Peritoneal dialysis-related infections recommendations: 2010 update. Perit Dial Int. 2010, 30 (4): 393-423. 10.3747/pdi.2010.00049.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2369/13/35/prepub