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Table 3 Urinary aquaporin-2 creatinine adjusted (U-AQP2/u-crea), urinary epithelial Na+ channel (U-ENaCβ/u-crea), plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), urine osmolality (U-OSM), serum osmolality (S-OSM), urinary excretion of prostaglandin2 (U-PGE2), free water clearance (CH2O), urinary excretion of cAMP (U-CAMP), and Glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

From: Increased renal sodium absorption by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis during fasting in healthy man. A possible role of the epithelial sodium channels

   Baseline 30 min 60 min 90 min 120 P
U-AQP2/u-crea (ng/μmol)        
  Placebo 154(33) 189(69) ** 200(61) *** 225(75) *** 233(76) *** 0.005
  Ibuprofen 161 (25) 161(62) 202(68)* 199(52)** 208(64)**  
  P-value NS 0.036 NS 0.008 0.014  
U-EnaC/u-crea (pg/μmol) Placebo   11.6(3) 13.4(3) ** 12.8(4) 13.4(4) 13.7(4) ** < 0.0001
  Ibuprofen 44.8(13) 44.1 (10) 38.6 (10) ** 39.1 (10) ** 35.8 (9) ***  
  P-Value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001  
P-AVP (pg/ml)        
  Placebo 0.87(0.5) 1.9(0.13) *** 1.5(0.12) *** 1.3(0.13) *** 1.2(0.9) *** NS
  Ibuprofen 0.91(0.5) 1.9(0.15) *** 1.5(0.11) *** 1.4(0.10) *** 1.2(0.9) ***  
U-OSM (mosm/kg H2O)        
  Placebo 130(25) 335(77) *** 588(113) *** 585(11) *** 566(110) *** NS
  Ibuprofen 125(31) 331(107) *** 631(201) *** 625(119) *** 612(130) ***  
S-OSM (mosm/kg H2O)        
  Placebo 283(2.7) 291(4.1) *** 290(3.2) *** 289(3.6) *** 287(3.7) *** NS
  Ibuprofen 283(3.0) 293(3.7) *** 291(2.6) *** 289(3.2) *** 287(3.5) ***  
U-PGE2 (pg/min)        
  Placebo 281(123) 212(105) 256(118) 293(133) 298(173) <0.001
  Ibuprofen 507(341) 385(180) 415(138) 406(160) 507(411)  
  P-Value 0.02 0.001 0.0004 0.005 0.02  
CH2O (ml/min)        
  Placebo 4.05(1.2) -0.38(0.5) *** -1.60(0.6) *** -2.00(0.7) *** -2.00(0.7) *** NS
  Ibuprofen 3.70(1.4) -0.20(1.0) *** -1.62(0.8) *** -1.92(0.7) *** -2.00(0.7) ***  
Urine (ml/min) Placebo 7.02(1.57) 3.0(0.19)*** 1.8(0.20)*** 2.16(0.20)*** 2.3(0.20)*** <0.0001
  Ibuprofen 6.31(1.71) 2.8 (0.23)*** 1.6(0.12)*** 1.7(0.11)*** 1.9(0.13)***  
  P-Value NS NS NS 0.016 NS  
U-CAMP (pmol/min)        
  Placebo 3819(1034) 3974(1251) 4285(1387) 4114(1353) 4219(1125) NS
  Ibuprofen 4016(1180) 3738(759) 4447(1243) 4196(1248) 4377(1136)  
GFR (ml/min)       
  Placebo 98(12) 94(16) 94(21) 103(21) 102(17) NS
  Ibuprofen 98(13) 93(18) 98(15) 101(16) 103(12)  
  1. Baseline values before hypertonic saline infusion, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after hypertonic saline infusion in 17 healthy humans administered with ibuprofen or placebo.
  2. Values are means and (SD). P indicates significant difference between ibuprofen treatment and placebo using a General Linear Model With Repeated Measures. A paired t-test was used for comparison of means, when differences were found between the two treatments. *indicated a statistical significant changed from baseline values* P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001.(longitudinal comparison)