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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of cases and controls: Established versus incipient AKI cases, and ICU versus healthy controls

From: Renal kallikrein excretion and epigenetics in human acute kidney injury: Expression, mechanisms and consequences

   AKI Controls
  P < 0.05 (*) Established Incipient (early, ICU) ICU Healthy
(non-hospital)
Characteristics   n = 20 n = 11 n = 44 n = 38
Age, years * 48.8 ± 3.5 68.1 ± 3.8 52.9 ± 2.3 46.3 ± 1.5
Sex (male/female)   15/5 5/6 26/18 28/10
Ethnicity, n *     
   White   11 5 28 20
   Black   3 4 8 6
   Hispanic   5 0 7 6
   Other   1 2 1 6
Lab findings at enrollment      
   sCr, mg/dl * 2.67 ± 0.43 1.29 ± 0.12 0.81 ± 0.05 0.9 ± 0.04
   eGFR, ml/min * 44.4 ± 7.3 60.9 ± 5.7 98.2 ± 4.9 97.5 ± 3.5
   uCr/sCr, ratio * 42.4 ± 7.2 83.3 ± 18.1 106.6 ± 18.3 119.6 ± 5.2
Urine kallikrein
(U/gm creatinine)
* 6.74 ± 1.92 1.17 ± 0.16 2.04 ± 0.47 0.63 ± 0.08
Vital signs at enrollment      
   Systolic BP, mmHg 0.08 119.8 ± 4.4 126.9 ± 8.7 124.3 ± 3.4 131.4 ± 1.7
   Diastolic BP, mmHg * 70.7 ± 3.4 61.8 ± 5.1 68.6 ± 2.3 74.7 ± 1.5
   Heart rate, beats/min * 89.3 ± 3.6 86.5 ± 7.4 81.3 ± 2.4 68.0 ± 1.6
Co-morbid conditions (Y/N)      
   Diabetes mellitus   6/14 6/5 12/32 0/38
   Hypertension * 10/10 8/3 20/22 8/30
   Coronary artery disease   1/19 4/7 10/34 0/38
   Congestive heart failure * 0/20 3/8 4/40 0/38
   Chronic liver disease * 6/14 0/11 4/40 0/38
   Chronic lung disease * 4/16 3/8 7/37 0/38
   Chronic kidney disease * 8/12 3/8 1/43 0/38
   HIV positive   2/18 0/11 3/41 0/38
   Malignancy   3/17 1/10 12/32 0/38
   Smoker * 8/12 3/8 16/28 4/34
Primary treating service, n      
   Medical/Surgical   14/6 11/0 34/10 -
Other characteristics while hospitalized (Y/N)      
   ICU admission * 13/7 11/0 44/0 -
   Ventilator at enrollment   5/15 3/8 13/31 -
   Pressor infusions * 3/17 9/2 12/32 -
Norepinephrine * 2/18 8/3 11/33 -
Epinephrine + dopamine * 1/19 9/2 12/32 -
   Diuretics at enrollment * 3/17 5/6 2/42 -
AKI outcomes      
   Required dialysis for AKI   3/17 1/10 - -
   Recovery from AKI * 17/3 11/0 - -
Remained dialysis-
dependent at follow-up
  1/19 0/11 - -
   Final eGFR at follow-up   66.5 ± 8.0 76.6 ± 5.5 - -
   eGFR Δ at follow-up   +16.5 ± 2.2 +22.2 ± 5.4 - -
   sCr Δ at follow-up 0.08 -1.0 ± 0.3 -0.25 ± 0.05 - -
  1. ICU = intensive care unit, AKI = acute kidney injury, n = number of study subjects, BMI = body mass index, s = serum, u = urine, Cr = creatinine, FeNa+ = fractional excretion of sodium, SBP = systolic blood pressure, DBP = diastolic blood pressure, HR = heart rate, bpm = beats per minute. Δ = change at discharge (from initial value). *P values calculated with Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and ANOVA (log-transformed and covariates adjusted: age, sex) for continuous variables. *: Symbol indicates P ≤ 0.05 comparing across all available groups. Recovery of renal function was the primary outcome, defined as a return to within 10% of baseline eGFR or lowest eGFR prior to AKI event. Plus-minus values are mean ± SEM.