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Table 2 Exposure to possible risk factors and the presence of albuminuria

From: Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

Variable   Number (%) of subjects with Odds ratio (95% CI) p-valuea
   no albuminuria n albuminuria n   
Farmers Yes 814 630 (77.4) 63 52 (82.5) 1.381 0.344
  No   184 (22.6)   11 (17.5) (0.706-2.701)  
Involved in pesticide spraying Yes 812 330 (40.6) 61 25 (41.0) 1.014 0.958
  No   482 (59.4)   36 (59.0) (0.598-1.722)  
History of pesticide poisoning Yes 813 38 (4.7) 63 2 (3.2) 0.669 0.439b
  No   775 (95.3)   61 (96.8) (0.158-2.838)  
History of smoking Yes 813 176 (21.6) 63 29 (46.0) 3.087 < 0.001
  No   637 (78.4)   34 (54.0) (1.830-5.207)  
History of alcohol use Yes 814 220 (27.0) 63 28 (44.4) 3.087 0.003
  No   594 (73.0)   35 (55.6) (1.830-5.207)  
Treated for Hypertension Yes 813 114 (14.0) 63 27 (42.9) 2.160 < 0.001
  No   699 (86.0)   36 (57.1) (1.284-3.635)  
Treated for Diabetes Mellitus Yes 812 41 (5.0) 63 13 (20.6) 4.889 < 0.001
  No   771 (95.0)   50 (79.4) (2.461-9.712)  
Acute Glomerular Nephritis Yes 814 2(0.2) 62 0 (0.0) 0.929 0.863b
  No   812 (99.8)   62 (100.0) (0.912-0.946)  
Renal stones Yes 814 32 (3.9) 63 1 (1.6) 0.394 0.298b
  No   782 (96.1)   62 (98.4) (0.053-2.933)  
Urinary Tract Infection Yes 814 199 (24.4) 63 8 (12.7) 0.450 0.034
  No   615 (75.6)   55 (87.3) (0.211-0.960)  
Chronic drug use Yes 813 43 (5.3) 62 5 (8.1) 1.571 0.248b
  No   770 (94.7)   57 (91.9) (0.599-4.120)  
Use of Ayurvedic Treatment Yes 814 551 (67.7) 27 45 (71.4) 1.193 0.540
  No   263 (32.3)   18 (28.6) (0.678-2.102)  
Snake bite in the past Yes 813 95 (11.7) 63 10 (15.9) 1.426 0.324
  No   718 (88.3)   53 (84.1) (0.702-2.897)  
Drinking water source        
a) at home        
Well Yes 799 732 (91.6) 63 61 (96.8) 2.792 0.102b
  No   67 (8.4)   2 (3.2) (0.668-1.671)  
Stream Yes 799 27 (3.4) 63 0 (0.0) 0.925 0.125b
  No   772 (96.6)   63 (100.0) (0.907-0.943)  
Pipe borne Yes 799 40 (5.0) 63 2 (3.2) 0.622 0.393b
  No   759 (95.0)   61 (6.8) (0.147-2.636)  
Tube well Yes 799 35 (4.4) 63 2 (3.2) 0.716 0.483b
  No   764 (95.6)   61 (96.8) (0.168-3.047)  
Other Yes 799 1 (0.1) 63 0 (0.0) 0.927 0.927b
  No   798 (99.9)   63 (100.0) (0.910-0.944)  
b) in the field        
From home Yes 814 496 (60.9) 63 37 (58.7) 0.912 0.730
  No   318 (39.1)   26 (41.3) (0.542-1.536)  
Well Yes 814 251 (30.8) 63 28 (44.4) 1.794 0.025
  No   563 (69.2)   35 (55.6) (1.068-3.014)  
Other Yes 814 51 (6.3) 63 1 (1.6) 0.241 0.097b
  No   763 (93.7)   62 (98.4) (0.033-1.776)  
  1. aChi square test;
  2. bFishers exact test