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Table 1 Characteristics of the 133 patients with ESRD with and without CAAC at the initiation of hemodialysis

From: Carotid artery calcification at the initiation of hemodialysis is a risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease: a cohort study

Variables CAAC (+) CAAC (-) p value
No. of patients 94 (71) 39 (29)  
Age (y) 67.2 ± 10.1 58.3 ± 8.8 < 0.01
Male 57 (61) 20 (51) 0.32
Hypertension 93 (99) 32 (82) < 0.01
Diabetes mellitus 58 (62) 18 (46) 0.10
Dyslipidemia 77 (82) 25 (64) 0.03
Smoking 45 (48) 14 (36) 0.20
Previous CVD 48 (51) 4 (10) < 0.01
Calcium carbonate 26 (28) 13 (33) 0.52
Vitamin D3 14 (15) 5 (13) 0.75
Dose of ESA (U/month) 3000 (0-3000) 1500 (0-3000) 0.47
Statins 26 (28) 5 (13) 0.05
ACEI and/or ARB 50 (53) 20 (51) 0.84
SBP (mm Hg) 158 ± 20 150 ± 23 0.04
DBP (mm Hg) 79 ± 10 82 ± 11 0.13
Pulse pressure (mm Hg) 79 ± 16 68 ± 15 < 0.01
Body mass index (kg/m2) 20 (18-22) 21 (19-23) 0.04
Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 92 (78-106) 88 (78-120) 0.76
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 9.0 (7.6-10.2) 9.6 (8.3-11.2) 0.07
Up/Ucr 4.7 (2.3-8.0) 3.7 (1.4-7.3) 0.10
Serum albumin (g/dL) 3.1 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.6 0.06
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 8.1 ± 1.1 8.6 ± 1.5 0.02
Ca-P product (mg2/dL2) 53.6 (44.2-64.8) 51.9 (42.8-61.4) 0.44
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.15 (0.05-0.44) 0.06 (0.02-0.21) 0.01
intact-PTH (pg/mL) 227 (150-315) 260 (170-420) 0.08
CCA-IMT (mm) 0.83 (0.72-1.10) 0.71 (0.57-0.80) < 0.01
CAP 77 (82) 9 (23) < 0.01
Calcified plaque 46 (49) 0 (0) < 0.01
AAC 67 (71) 5 (13) < 0.01
Low ABI 20 (22) 1 (3) < 0.01
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± SD, number (%), or median (interquartile range). Abbreviations: ESRD, end-stage renal disease; CAAC, carotid artery calcification; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ESA, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; Up/Ucr, urinary protein-creatinine ratio; Ca-P, calcium-phosphorus; PTH, parathyroid hormone; CCA-IMT, common carotid artery-intima-media thickness; CAP carotid artery plaque; AAC, aortic arch calcification; ABI, ankle-brachial index.