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Table 2 Characteristics at the initiation of hemodialysis of the 133 patients with and without cardiovascular events

From: Carotid artery calcification at the initiation of hemodialysis is a risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease: a cohort study

Variables CV events (+) CV events (-) p value
No. of patients 47 (35) 86 (65)  
Age (y) 66.7 ± 9.4 63.4 ± 10.9 0.10
Male 29 (62) 48 (56) 0.51
Hypertension 46 (98) 79 (92) 0.13
Diabetes mellitus 30 (64) 46 (53) 0.25
Dyslipidemia 38 (81) 64 (74) 0.40
Smoking 26 (55) 33 (38) 0.06
Previous CV disease 21 (45) 31 (36) 0.33
Dose of ESA (U/week) 9000 (4500-9000) 9000 (9000-9000) 0.34
Statins 16 (34) 14 (16) 0.02
ACEI and/or ARB 24 (51) 41 (48) 0.71
SBP (mm Hg) 155 ± 15 156 ± 23 0.92
DBP (mm Hg) 78 ± 10 80 ± 10 0.34
Pulse pressure (mm Hg) 76 ± 12 75 ± 19 0.51
Body mass index (kg/m2) 20 (18-23) 21 (19-22) 0.43
Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 92 (73-114) 90 (80-110) 0.60
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 8.4 (6.9-9.7) 9.5 (8.3-10.9) < 0.01
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 8.4 ± 1.1 8.1 ± 1.3 0.22
Up/Ucr 4.4 (2.0-7.2) 4.6 (1.8-8.1) 0.75
Serum albumin (g/dL) 3.1 ± 0.6 3.2 ± 0.6 0.43
Ca-P product (mg2/dL2) 51.5 (43.7-61.4) 53.3 (43.5-65.0) 0.58
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.14 (0.05-0.44) 0.09 (0.04-0.28) 0.30
intact-PTH (pg/mL) 235 (150-302) 245 (160-381) 0.41
CCA-IMT (mm) 0.83 (0.73-0.97) 0.77 (0.64-0.95) 0.09
CAP 35 (74) 51 (59) 0.08
Calcified plaque 24 (51) 22 (26) < 0.01
CAAC 41 (87) 53 (62) < 0.01
AAC 28 (60) 44 (51) 0.35
Low ABI 10 (22) 11 (13) 0.18
Duration of follow-up (months) 19.2 (9.1-32.5) 51.6 (38.4-65.7) < 0.01
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± SD, number (%), or median (interquartile range). Abbreviations: CV, cardiovascular; ESA, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; Up/Ucr, urinary protein-creatinine ratio; Ca-P, calcium-phosphorus; PTH, parathyroid hormone; CCA-IMT, common carotid artery-intima-media thickness; CAP carotid artery plaque; CAAC, carotid artery calcification; AAC, aortic arch calcification; ABI, ankle-brachial index.