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Table 5 Results of vitamin levels analyzed in plasma of subjects studied.

From: The relationships between exogenous and endogenous antioxidants with the lipid profile and oxidative damage in hemodialysis patients

Vitamins Healthy Subjects (n = 20) Hemodialysis Patients (n = 29)
  Men (n = 10) Women (n = 10) Men (n = 19) Women (n = 10)
Lutein 0.62 ± 0.06 0.46 ± 0.05
  0.5 ± 0.05 0.7 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.08 0.5 ± 0.05
Zeaxanthin 0.08 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.01
  0.07 ± 0.004 0.1 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.008 0.07 ± 0.005
Criptoxanthin 0.18 ± 0.07 0.21 ± 0.04
  0.1 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.03 0.3 ± 0.09
α-Carotene 0.18 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.01a
  0.08 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.05 b 0.07 ± 0.008 0.09 ± 0.01
β-Carotene 0.64 ± 0.09 0.50 ± 0.07
  0.4 ± 0.05 0.9 ± 0.1b 0.4 ± 0.03 0.7 ± 0.2 b
Lycopene 0.64 ± 0.06 0.35 ± 0.05a
  0.6 ± 0.06 0.7 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.06 0.4 ± 0.1
T-Tocopherols 29.6 ± 1.3 33.2 ± 1.9
  29.8 ± 2.0 29.4 ± 1.8 29.4 ± 1.7 41 ± 3.4 b
  1. The values represent the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM).
  2. The unit for all parameters is μmol.L-1.
  3. a p < 0.05 when compared with healthy subjects.
  4. b Inter-gender difference (p < 0.05).