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Table 2 Median cytokine levels among participants treated with high-dose and usual-dose ESA and unadjusted and adjusted odds of cytokine being above the median

From: Association between high-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, inflammatory biomarkers, and soluble erythropoietin receptors

Variable High-dose ESA
(≥1 mcg/kg/wk of
darbepoetin-α)
(n = 11)
Usual-Dose ESA
(< 1 mcg/kg/wk of
darbepoetin-α)
(n = 21)
Unadjusted Odds Ratio, *
(5-95% CI)
p-value
Adjusted Odds Ratio**,
(5-95% CI)
p-value
C-reactive protein (mg/l) 7.7 (4.8, 9.7) 2.4 (1.1, 9.2) 9.0 (1.5-53.4)
p = 0.01
16.0 (1.5-174.5)
p = 0.02
Interferon-γ (pg/mL) 12.4 (4.4, 18.3) 8.5 (3.8, 11.2) 4.3 (0.88-21.3)
p = 0.06
4.5 (0.5-37.2)
p = 0.2
Tumor necrosis factor-α (pg/mL) 68.7 (10.3, 202.4) 41.2 (15.8, 65.6) 1.32 (0.31-5.7)
p = 0.7
1.7 (0.2-14.4)
p = 0.6
Interleukin-1β (pg/mL) 1.0 (0.2, 2.0) 0.6 (0.3, 1.6) 1.32 (0.31-5.7)
p = 0.7
1.3 (0.1-11.4)
p = 0.8
Interleukin-2 (pg/mL) 18.2 (6.3, 33.1) 9.2 (4.5, 22.2) 4.3 (0.88-21.3)
p = 0.06
2.4 (0.3-18.8)
p = 0.4
Interleukin-6 (pg/mL) 21.3 (17.3, 26.3) 16.2 (13.5, 21.9) 4.3 (0.88-21.3)
p = 0.06
12.3 (1.1-143.2)
p = 0.04
Interleukin-8 (pg/mL) 63.5 (33.9, 63.5) 44.5 (34.3, 65.0) 1.32 (0.31-5.7)
p = 0.7
1.1 (0.2-8.3), p = 0.9
Interleukin-10 (pg/mL) 4.2 (1.3, 7.6) 1.5 (1.0, 3.3) 4.3 (0.88-21.3)
p = 0.06
4.3 (0.5-35.0)
p = 0.2
IL-12p40 (pg/mL) 32.8 (15.9, 37.0) 22.8 (16.1, 32.2) 2.3 (0.52-10.5)
p = 0.45
3.1 (0.4-23.2) p = 0.3
IL-12p70 (pg/mL) 4.4 (1.1, 8.1) 2.7 (1.6, 4.0) 4.3 (0.88-21.3)
p = 0.06
5.6 (0.7-47.2)
p = 0.1
  1. Median and 25th to 75th interquartile range
  2. *Odds ratio of cytokine being above the median among those in high vs usual dose ESA,
  3. **Adjusted for gender, hemoglobin and ferritin