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Table 2 Stone characteristics, complications and treatment patterns of patients <65 years of age and ≥65 years

From: Geriatric urolithiasis in the emergency department: risk factors for hospitalisation and emergency management patterns of acute urolithiasis

Variable Number (%) of patients p-value
≥65 years <65 years
Patients 141 (10) 1220 (90)  
Mean age ± SD (range) 73±7 (65–93) 43±11 (20–64) <0.01
Men/Women 94 (67)/46 (33) 948 (78)/272 (22) 0.01
Patients with ≥2 ED visits 11 (8) 83 (7) 0.6
First stone episode 79 (56) 528 (43) <0.01
Patients ≥2 diagnostic procedures 32 (23) 540 (44) <0.01
Diabetes mellitus 18 (13) 21 (2) <0.001
Hypertension 69 (49) 114 (9) <0.001
Diuretics 22 (16) 11(1) <0.001
Stone site 0.25
Kidney 38 (27) 301 (25)  
Ureteropelvic junction 7 (5) 49 (4)  
Proximal ureter 15 (11) 124 (10)  
Middle ureter 24 (17) 116 (10)  
Distal ureter 40 (28) 504 (41)  
Bladder/passed 17 (12) 126 (10)  
Stone side
Right/left kidney 50 (36)/47 (33) 427 (35)/466 (38) 0.78
Bilateral 27 (19) 201 (17)  
Bladder/passed 17 (12) 126 (10)  
Stone size >5mm/≤5mm 42 (35)/79 (65) 310 (36)/551 (64) 0.88
Single/multiple stones 79 (56)/62 (44) 913 (75)/307 (25) <0.001
Severe complications 13 (9) 40 (3) 0.001
Hospitalisation 65 (46) 394 (32) 0.001
Treatment    
Analgesics administered in ED <0.001
0 10 (7) 71 (6)  
1 79 (56) 366 (30)  
≥2 Analgesics 52 (37) 783 (64)  
Analgesics    
Opioid 45 (32) 723 (59) <0.001
NSAID 11 (8) 231 (19) <0.01
Metamizole 94 (67) 838 (69) 0.62
Paracetamol 36 (26) 327 (27) 0.74
Expulsive agents 12 (9) 287 (24) <0.001
Antibiotics 26 (18) 124 (10) <0.01