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Table 3 Initial empiric antibiotic combinations administered to treat first episodes of peritonitis in Australian PD patients during the period 2003–2007, according to patient proximity to their nearest PD unit. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001)

From: The effects of living distantly from peritoneal dialysis units on peritonitis risk, microbiology, treatment and outcomes: a multi-centre registry study

Antibiotic combination ≥100 km from PD Unit (n = 193) <100 km from PD Unit (n = 2915)
1st generation cephalosporin + aminoglycoside 38 (20%) 1065 (37%)
1st generation cephalosporin + 3rd/4th generation cephalosporin 35 (18%) 452 (16%)
First-generation cephalosporin + other Gram-negative antibiotica 4 (2%) 29 (1%)
Vancomycin + aminoglycoside 65 (34%) 974 (33%)
Vancomycin + 3rd/4th generation cephalosporin 10 (5%) 55 (2%)
Vancomycin + other Gram-negative antibiotica 25 (13%) 213 (7%)
Other Gram-positive antibioticb + aminoglycoside 5 (3%) 60 (2%)
Other Gram-positive antibioticb + 3rd/4th generation cephalosporin 1 (11%) 9 (0%)
Other Gram-positive antibioticb + Other Gram-negative antibiotica 10 (5%) 58 (2%)
  1. aOther Gram-negative antibiotics include (in decreasing order of frequency): ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, metronidazole, erythromycin, aztreonam and fleroxacin.
  2. bOther Gram-positive antibiotics include (in decreasing order of frequency): flucloxacillin, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, teicoplanin, amoxicillin and erythromycin.