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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 2,642)

From: Chronic kidney disease in the type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and associated variables in a random sample of 2642 patients of a Mediterranean area

  Total Men Women p value
Age, years; mean (SD) 68.06 (11.60) 66.81 (11.63) 69.31 (11.59) < 0.001
Gender,n (%) 2642 1361 (51.5) 1281(48.5) ns
Years of diabetes duration, mean (SD) 7.05 (5.60) 6.58 (5.06) 7.39 (6.04) <0.001
Diabetes duration 5–10 years, n (%) 803 (30.4) 413 (30.4) 390 (30.5) ns
Diabetes duration & 10 years, n (%) 497 (18.8) 231 (17.0) 266 (20.8) < 0.05
BP, mmHg,mean (SD) 137.23/76.52 (14.60/9.05) 136.98/76.49 (14.68/9.10) 137.08/76.43 (14.71/8.89) ns SBP ns DBP
Hypertension,n (%) 1847 (69.9) 894 (65.6) 953 (74.3) <0.001
BP ≤ 140/90 mmHg,n (%) 1896 (71.7) 976 (71.7) 920 (71.8) ns
BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg,n (%) 915 (34.6) 460 (33.8) 455 (35.5) ns
HbA1c, mean (SD) 6.84 (1.46) 6.83 (1.47) 6.85 (1.44) ns
HbA1c ≤ 7%, n (%) 1786 (67.6) 920 (67.6) 866 (67.6) ns
HbA1c ≤ 8%,n (%) 2319 (87.7) 1182 (86.8) 1137 (88.7) ns
Total cholesterol,mg/dl,mean (SD) 194.33 (38.41) 188.06 (38.45) 201.00 (37.25) <0.001
Non-HDL cholesterol, mg/dl,mean (SD) 144,10 (37.44) 140.63 (37.72) 148.10 (36.65) <0.001
Non-HDL cholesterol < 130 mg/dl, n (%) 1007 (38.1) 592 (43.5) 415 (32.4) <0.001
Non-HDL cholesterol < 160 mg/dl, n (%) (1) 1802 (68.2) 957 (70.3) 845 (66.0) 0.025
Obesity, n (%) 1118 (42.3) 471 (34.6) 647 (50.5 <0.001
Tobacco habit, n (%) 365 (13.8) 299 (22.0) 66 (5.1) <0.001
Creatinine, mg/dl (SD) 1.21 (1.03) 1.30 (1.12) 1.10 (0.92) <0.001
GFR, mil/min/1.73 m2 (SD) 76.30 (32.79) 79.73 (29.48) 72.71 (35.67) <0.001
Macrovascular disease,n (%) (1) 460 (17.4) 275 (20.2) 185 (14.4) <0.001
CHD,n (%) 329 (12.4) 197 (14.5) 132 (10.3) 0.014
Stroke,n (%) 188 (7.1) 102 (7.5) 86 (6.7) ns
Diabetic foot, n (%) (2) 100 (5.0) 48 (4.6) 52 (5.3) ns
Microvascular disease (3) 475 (32.1) 260 (34.1) 215 (30.0) ns
Albuminuria, n (%) (3) 288 (19.5) 184 (24.1) 104 (14.5) <0.001
Diabetic retinopathy, n (%) 227(15.3) 113 (14.8) 114 (16.0) ns
ACEI/ARB treatment, n (%) 1453 (54.9) 741 (54.5) 712 (55.5) ns
Calibrated Framingham cardiovascular risk equation & 10%, n (%) 240 (9.1) 194 (14.2) 46 (3.6) <0.001
  1. (1) Coronary heart disease (CHD) and/or stroke; (2) Ulcers and/or amputations, n = 2,000, men 1030, women 970; (3) Albuminuria and/or diabetic retinopathy, n = 1478, men 761, women 717.
  2. BP: blood pressure, HDL: high density lipoprotein, GFR: glomerular filtration rate, ACEI: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker.