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Table 4 Multivariate analysis of types of kidney disease and associated variables in type 2 diabetic patients

From: Chronic kidney disease in the type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and associated variables in a random sample of 2642 patients of a Mediterranean area

  Renal impairment OR (CI 95%) Nonalbuminuric RI OR (CI 95%) Diabetic nephropathy OR (CI 95%)
Gender (men) women 2.20 (1.86–2.54) 0.27 (0.21–0.35) 0.56 (0.400.78)
Diabetes duration (≤10) & 10 years 1.43 (1.18–1.74) 0.66 (0.48–1.08) 0.80 (0.54–1.19)
D Diabetes duration For year 1.03 (1.02–1.05) 0.94 (0.91–0.97) 0.97 (0.94–1.1)
ACEI/ARB treatment (No) Yes 1.51 (1.27–1.79) 1.42 (1.09–1.84) 0.98 (0.70–1.37)
BP (≤ 130/80 mmHg) & 130/80 mmHg 0.86 (0.69–1.06) 2.16 (0.90–3.57) 1.18 (0.60–2.32)
HbA1c for each 1% of increase 0.85 (0.80-0.91) 1.19 (1.09-1.30) 1.21 (0.96-1.37)
Insulin treatment (No) Yes 1.82 (1.39-2.38) 1.42 (1.08-1.84) 4.17 (2.33-7.44)
Microvascular disease (No) Yes 2.14 (1.80-2.54) - -
  1. In bold: p < 0.01;
  2. Adjusted also for age, body mass index, total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, pulse pressure and macrovascular disease.
  3. RI: renal impairment. Glomerular filtration rate < 60 mil/min/1.73 m2. Diabetic nephropathy: albuminuria & 300 mg/gr or albuminuria 30–300 mg/gr plus retinopathy. Albuminuria: albuminuria & 30 mg/gr.; ACEI: angiotensin-converting enyme inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; BP: blood pressure; HbA1c; glycated haemoglobin; Microvascular disease: albuminuria and/or diabetic retinopathy.