Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive statistics of subjects in case and control groups

From: A population-based study on the association between acute renal failure (ARF) and the duration of polypharmacy

  Control Group (N = 83,160) Case Group (N = 20,790) Crude odds ratio p-value
  Number (%) Number (%)   
Gender       <0.001
 Male 44,695 (53.75) 12,314 (59.23) 1.25  
 Female(ref) 38,465 (46.25) 8,476 (40.77)   
Age       <0.001
 0-18 years old (ref) 15,065 (18.12) 174 (0.84)   
 19-64 years old 39,199 (47.14) 6,607 (31.78) 14.57  
 65-79 years old 19,684 (23.67) 8,032 (38.63) 35.28  
 Over 80 years old 9,212 (11.08) 5,977 (28.75) 56.10  
Hospital accreditation status       N.A
 Medical center 33,544 (40.34) 8,386 (40.34)   
 Regional hospital 35,240 (42.38) 8,810 (42.38)   
 Community hospital 14,376 (17.29) 3,594 (17.29)   
Duration of polypharmacy       <0.001
 Less than 30 days(ref) 40,408 (48.59) 4,069 (19.57)   
 31-90 days 13,867 (16.68) 2,925 (14.07) 2.09  
 91-180 days 8,823 (10.61) 3,355 (16.14) 3.78  
 Over 181 days 20,062 (24.12) 10,441 (50.22) 5.17  
ICU       <0.001
Yes 9,454 (11.37) 9,768 (46.98) 6.91  
NSAIDS or Triamterene day* 4.78 (17.23) 8.10 (22.61) 1.01 <0.001
Comorbidity**       
ASHD 12,387 (14.90) 5,730 (27.56) 2.17 <0.001
CHF 5,876 (7.07) 4,711 (22.66) 3.85 <0.001
CVA/TIA 9,181 (11.04) 5,289 (25.44) 2.75 <0.001
PVD 2,946 (3.54) 1,578 (7.59) 2.24 <0.001
Other cardiac 5,641 (6.78) 2,538 (12.21) 1.91 <0.001
COPD 14,477 (17.41) 5,605 (26.96) 1.75 <0.001
GI 14,191 (17.06) 6,788 (32.65) 2.36 <0.001
Liver disease 10,338 (12.43) 3,998 (19.23) 1.68 <0.001
Dysrhythmia 5,783 (6.95) 3,952 (14.20) 2.21 <0.001
Cancer 7,718 (9.28) 3,989 (19.19) 2.32 <0.001
Diabetes 16,390 (19.71) 8,396 (40.38) 2.76 <0.001
Site of operation       
Nervous system 1,564 (1.88) 285 (1.37) 0.73 <0.001
Endocrine system 1,168 (1.40) 16 (0.08) 0.05 <0.001
Eyes 178 (0.21) 42 (0.20) 0.95 0.736
Ears 79 (0.09) 6 (0.03) 0.30 0.003
Nose, mouth and pharynx 668 (0.80) 67 (0.32) 0.40 <0.001
Respiratory system 4,023 (4.84) 1,902 (9.15) 1.98 <0.001
Cardiovascular system 7,465 (8.89) 5,165 (24.84) 3.35 <0.001
Hemic and lymphatic system 841 (1.01) 265 (1.27) 1.26 0.001
Digestive system 11,578 (13.92) 4,471 (21.51) 1.69 <0.001
Urinary system 8,805 (10.59) 1,286 (6.19) 0.56 <0.001
Male genital organs 71 (0.09) 4 (0.02) 0.23 0.002
Female genital organs 164 (0.20) 1 (0.00) 0.03 <0.001
Obstetrical procedures 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) - -
Musculoskeletal system 2,933 (3.53) 508 (2.44) 0.69 <0.001
Integumentary system 2,218 (2.67) 626 (3.01) 1.13 0.007
Miscellaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures 27,814 (33.45) 12,863 (61.87) 3.23 <0.001
  1. * t test.
  2. **Abbreviations: ASHD, atherosclerotic heart disease; CHF, congestive heart failure;COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVA/TIA, cerebrovascular accident/transient ischemic attack; GI, gastrointestinal bleeding; PVD, peripheral vascular disease.