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Table 3 Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill pH1N1 patients, stratified by AKI

From: Acute kidney injury among critically ill patients with pandemic H1N1 influenza A in Canada: cohort study

  Overall AKI No AKI P value
(n = 562) (n = 342) (n = 220)
Day 1 support, physiology, and laboratory values
APACHE II score (n = 508, 306, 202) 21.1 (9.2) 23.0 (9.6) 18.1 (7.6) <0.0001
SOFA score (n = 361, 216, 145) 11.2 (3.8) 12.0 (3.8) 9.7 (3.2) <0.0001
Invasive mechanical ventilation (n = 553, 338, 215) 384 (69.4) 241 (71.3) 143 (66.5) 0.23
Inotrope or vasopressor 251 (44.7) 164 (48.0) 87 (39.6) 0.05
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) (n = 522, 315, 207) 74 (19) 73 (19) 76 (19) 0.14
Heart rate (beats/min) (n = 433, 262, 171) 104 (24) 106 (25) 102 (22) 0.07
Temperature (°C) (n = 405, 244, 161) 37.6 (1.2) 37.6 (1.3) 37.7 (1.2) 0.84
PaO2/FiO2 (n = 496, 299, 197) 153 (96) 143 (94) 167 (98) 0.006
CK (U/L) (n = 230, 137, 93) 293 (91-835) 320 (102-949) 206 (90-681) 0.08
CK > 5000 IU/L (n = 230, 137, 93) 13 (5.7) 10 (7.3) 3 (3.2) 0.19
WBC (109/L) (n = 409, 243, 166) 9.6 (6.5) 9.7 (6.8) 9.3 (6.0) 0.45
Albumin (g/L) (n = 275, 167, 108) 26.2 (7.0) 26.1 (7.1) 26.4 (7.0) 0.77
Platelets (109/L) (n = 520, 313, 207) 188 (96) 184 (95) 194 (96) 0.26
Urea (mmol/L) (n = 76, 44, 32) 10.5 (21.0) 14.4 (26.9) 5.1 (2.8) 0.03
Creatinine (μmol/L) (n = 537, 326, 211) 124 (120) 155 (144) 76 (31) <0.0001
Urine output (mL/24 hr) (n = 431, 270, 161) 1439 (1055) 1070 (939) 2058 (946) <0.0001
Clinical course and outcomes
Invasive mechanical ventilation 499 (88.8) 313 (91.5) 186 (84.6) 0.01
Inotropes or vasopressors 339 (60.3) 222 (64.9) 117 (53.2) 0.006
Antiviral treatment 530 (94.3) 326 (95.3) 204 (92.7) 0.20
Renal replacement therapy (n = 561, 342, 219) 85 (15.2) 85 (24.9) 0 <0.0001
Days of hospital stay (n = 523, 319, 204) 19.0 (12.0-35.0) 20.0 (12.0-40.0) 17.0 (12.0-30.0) 0.13
Days of ICU stay (n = 539, 325, 214) 11.0 (7.0-20.0) 12.0 (7.0-24.0) 10.0 (6.0-16.0) 0.002
Hospital mortality (n = 545, 329, 216) 113 (20.7) 85 (25.8) 28 (13.0) 0.0003
  1. AKI is defined by the RIFLE Injury or Failure categories and no AKI by the RIFLE None or Risk categories.
  2. Categorical data are presented as n (%) and continuous data as mean (SD) or median (Q1-Q3). For each variable, we specify (n) with data if it differs from the total in the first row.