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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by risk group

From: Diabetic nephropathy in a sibling and albuminuria predict early GFR decline: a prospective cohort study

  High risk Low risk p-value
N 435 400  
Gender (% female) 62.8 67.0 0.20
Age (yr) 58.9 ± 10.5 59.9 ± 11.8 0.20
Race (% AA) 51.4 52.5 0.75
Diabetes duration (yr) 14.1 ± 9.7 17.2 ± 8.7 < 0.01
HbA1c (%) 7.7 ± 1.9 7.8 ± 2.0 0.46
Systolic BP (mm Hg) 135.4 ± 17.8 134.2 ± 19.7 0.36
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) 75.9 ± 11.6 74.7 ± 11.9 0.14
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 1.05 ± 0.37 0.97 ± 0.25 <0.01
eGFR creat (ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) 74.3 ± 27.7 76.1 ± 24.3 0.32
Serum cystatin C (mg/dl) 1.1 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.5 <0.01
eGFR creat+cysC (ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) 73.9 ± 29.3 77.4 ± 24.1 0.06
Urine alb:creat (mg/g) 27.6 (9-119) 11.2 (6-22) <0.01
BP meds (%) 77.7 81.6 0.16
ACE inhibitor (%) 48.5 52.8 0.21
ARB (%) 14.1 14.8 0.77
Other BP meds (%) 57.3 57.4 0.98
Insulin (%) 45.8 42.9 0.26
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%) 61.0 65.6 0.06
Lipid-lowering agents (%) 64.2 70.2 0.01
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation for continuous measures, % frequency of reference level for discrete measures and median (first quartile-third quartile) for urine alb:creat (mg/g). Analyses to generate p-values include t-tests, χ2 tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests where appropriate. Abbreviations: ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; alb:creat, albumin to creatinine ratio; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c.