Wnt signalling pathways implicated in diabetic nephropathy. Eleven genes encoding members of the Wnt signalling pathway were prioritized for assessment of association with diabetic nephropathy (AXIN1, CALM3, CTNNB1, DAAM1, DKK2, GSK3B, NFAT5, WNT3, WNT5A, WNT6 and WNT16). (A) Canonical WNT signalling: Some WNT ligands bind to FZD and LRP receptors. DKK internalises the LRP receptors blocking canonical WNT signalling. DVL recruits the AXIN GSK3B destruction complex that is responsible for marking B-catenin for proteosomal degradation. (B) Non-canonical WNT signalling: Certain WNT ligands bind to FZD receptors and elicit the activation of DVL and heterotrimeric G-proteins which in turn can activate DAAM which regulates cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion dynamics. In addition, activation of CALM regulates the transcription factor NFAT and modulates gene expression.