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Table 1 Baseline demographics and prevalence of cardiovascular disease according to disease stage, the CKD-ROUTE study (Oct 2010 - Dec 2011)

From: Baseline characteristics and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in newly visiting or referred chronic kidney disease patients to nephrology centers in Japan: a prospective cohort study

  All Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 P- value
  n = 1138 n = 95 n = 470 n = 364 n = 209  
Age (years old) 68 ± 14 57 ± 17 67 ± 13 71 ± 12 69 ± 14 <0.001
  70 [61–77] 61 [46–71] 70 [60–76] 73 [64–78] 70 [61–78]  
Male gender 792 57 361 255 119 <0.001
  69.6% 60.0% 76.8% 70.1% 56.9%  
Self-feeding ability 1118 94 460 360 204 0.744
  99.1% 98.9% 99.1% 99.4% 98.6%  
BMI (kg/m2) 23.7 ± 4.0 23.0 ± 4.0 23.7 ± 3.7 23.9 ± 4.1 23.8 ± 4.5 0.351
  23.3 [21.0 - 25.8] 22.6 [20.6 - 25.4] 23.5 [21.3 - 25.7] 23.4 [21.0 - 26.4] 23.0 [20.9 - 25.6]  
BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 328 20 129 115 64 0.473
  32.8% 26.0% 32.0% 35.1% 33.2%  
Diabetes 422 15 141 163 103 <0.001
  37.1% 15.8% 30.0% 44.8% 49.3%  
HbA1c (NGSP) (%) 6.1 ± 1.0 6.0 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 1.0 6.2 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 1.0 0.083
  5.9 [5.6 - 6.5] 5.7 [5.5 - 6.1] 5.9 [5.6 - 6.4] 6.0 [5.6 - 6.6] 5.9 [5.5 - 6.5]  
Albumin (g/dl) 4.0 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.6 <0.001
  4.3 [3.7 - 4.5] 4.1 [3.8 - 4.4] 3.9 [3.5 - 4.2] 3.6 [3.2 - 4.0] 4.0 [3.5 - 4.3]  
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) 32.7 ± 18.7 72.1 ± 8.5 43.3 ± 8.2 22.0 ± 4.4 9.9 ± 3.0 <0.001
  29.8 [17.5 - 45.0] 70.6 [64.9 - 79.7] 43.2 [35.5 - 50.2] 21.7 [17.9 - 25.6] 9.8 [7.4 - 12.4]  
SBP (mmHg) 140 ± 22 139 ± 20 137 ± 22 140 ± 24 146 ± 22 <0.001
  138 [125–152] 136 [125–150] 135 [122–150] 136 [125–154] 143 [136–160]  
DBP (mmHg) 78 ± 15 83 ± 14 79 ± 15 75 ± 15 79 ± 15 <0.001
  78 [68–87] 83 [74–92] 79 [70–87] 75 [64–83] 78 [69–90]  
Causes of CKD       
Diabetic nephropathy 287 10 74 116 87 <0.001
  25.5% 10.5% 16.0% 32.0% 42.2%  
Nephrosclerosis 451 23 214 159 55  
  40.0% 24.2% 46.2% 43.8% 26.7%  
Glomerulonephritis 216 43 83 49 41  
  19.2% 45.3% 17.9% 13.5% 19.9%  
Others 173 19 92 39 23  
  15.4% 20.0% 19.9% 10.7% 11.2%  
Prevalence of CVD 305 7 104 130 64 <0.001
  26.8% 7.4% 22.1% 35.7% 30.6%  
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation and median with interquartile ranges. Categorical data are presented as numbers (n) of patients and percentages in each CKD stage. BMI body mass index, NGSP National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, CVD cardiovascular disease.