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Table 2 Prevalence of non-renal risk factors for cardiovascular disease at enrollment, the CKD-ROUTE study (Oct 2010 - Dec 2011)

From: Baseline characteristics and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in newly visiting or referred chronic kidney disease patients to nephrology centers in Japan: a prospective cohort study

  All Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 P- value
  n = 1138 n = 95 n = 470 n = 364 n = 209  
Hypertension 1027 69 406 348 204 <0.001
  90.2% 72.6% 86.4% 95.6% 97.6%  
Anti-hypertensive therapy 897 38 337 326 196 <0.001
  78.8% 40.0% 71.7% 89.6% 93.8%  
ARB or ACEI 720 29 282 271 138 <0.001
  63.3% 30.5% 60.0% 74.5% 66.0%  
Calcium channel blockers 488 13 173 180 122 <0.001
  42.9% 13.7% 36.8% 49.5% 58.4%  
β blockers 163 3 57 66 37 <0.001
  14.3% 3.2% 12.1% 18.1% 17.7%  
α blockers 76 0 22 36 18 0.001
  6.7% 0.0% 4.7% 9.9% 8.6%  
Diuretics 381 6 107 156 112 <0.001
  33.5% 6.3% 22.8% 42.9% 53.6%  
Anemia       
Hb (g/dl) 13.7 ± 1.9 13.1 ± 1.9 11.2 ± 1.9 9.8 ± 1.5 11.9 ± 2.3 <0.001
  13.9 [12.8 - 14.9] 13.2 [11.9 - 14.3] 11.1 [9.9 - 12.4] 9.8 [8.8 - 10.7] 12.0 [10.2 - 13.6]  
Hb < 11 g/dl 404 7 64 169 164 <0.001
  35.6% 7.4% 13.6% 46.6% 78.5%  
Iron deficiency 142 6 46 61 29 0.013
  14.9% 7.9% 12.2% 19.7% 15.3%  
Oral iron supplementation 58 1 12 23 22 <0.001
  5.1% 1.1% 2.6% 6.3% 10.5%  
ESA 121 1 5 48 67 <0.001
  10.6% 1.1% 1.1% 13.2% 32.1%  
Lipid abnormalities       
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 218 ± 49 197 ± 48 185 ± 46 190 ± 51 194 ± 49 <0.001
  214 [190–248] 193 [169–216] 182 [153–217] 180 [153–220] 190 [162–220]  
HDL-C (mg/dl) 61 ± 20 55 ± 17 50 ± 16 51 ± 17 52 ± 17 <0.001
  59 [45–67] 52 [42–63] 48 [39–59] 48 [38–59] 50 [40–62]  
HDL-C < 40 mg/dl 229 11 76 89 53 <0.001
  22.5% 12.8% 18.2% 27.7% 27.7%  
LDL-C (mg/dl) 128 ± 42 111 ± 40 104 ± 39 109 ± 42 110 ± 41 <0.001
  124 [106–152] 108 [87–130] 101 [75–125] 102 [78–126] 107 [83–130]  
LDL-C ≥ 120 mg/dl 317 45 133 84 55 <0.001
  34.6% 58.4% 34.5% 29.8% 31.8%  
Statin 325 16 112 117 80 <0.001
  28.6% 16.8% 23.8% 32.1% 38.3%  
Disorders of mineral metabolism       
Corrected Ca (mg/dl) 9.6 ± 0.5 9.5 ± 0.4 9.3 ± 0.5 9.2 ± 0.9 9.4 ± 0.6 <0.001
  9.6 [9.3 -9.9] 9.5 [9.2 - 9.8] 9.3 [9.0 - 9.6] 9.2 [8.8 - 9.5] 9.4 [9.1 - 9.7]  
Corrected Ca < 8.4 mg/dl 32 1 2 8 21 <0.001
  2.9% 1.1% 0.4% 2.3% 10.2%  
P (mg/dl) 3.3 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.6 4.6 ± 1.3 3.6 ± 0.9 <0.001
  3.4 [3.0 - 3.6] 3.3 [3.0 - 3.6] 3.5 [3.1 - 3.9] 4.4 [3.7 - 5.3] 3.5 [3.1 - 4.0]  
P ≥ 4.6 mg/dl 102 0 6 14 82 <0.001
  9.4% 0.0% 1.3% 4.0% 40.2%  
Intact PTH (pg/ml) 46 ± 22 59 ± 37 103 ± 63 246 ± 156 109 ± 108 <0.001
  39 [33–56] 51 [37–71] 89 [60–129] 218 [138–313] 71 [45–129]  
Intact PTH > 65 pg/ml 496 11 116 200 169 <0.001
  55.1% 15.9% 32.2% 68.0% 95.5%  
Urinalysis       
UPCR (g/gCr) 2.16 ± 3.23 1.40 ± 3.08 1.21 ± 2.48 2.37 ± 3.04 4.31 ± 3.99 <0.001
  0.74 [0.13 - 2.85] 0.26 [0.07 - 1.14] 0.24 [0.06 - 0.99] 1.09 [0.23 - 3.40] 3.16 [1.15 - 6.16]  
UPCR ≥ 0.5 g/gCr 591 36 159 224 172 <0.001
  56.3% 40.0% 36.7% 66.7% 90.1%  
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation and median with interquartile ranges. Categorical data are presented as numbers (n) of patients and percentages in each CKD stage. ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, Hb hemoglobin, ESA erythropoiesis stimulating agent, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, Ca calcium, P phosphorus, PTH parathyroid hormone, UPCR urinary protein to creatinine ratio, g/gCr gram per gram creatinine.