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Table 3 Risk factors for the presence of cardiovascular disease, the CKD-ROUTE study (Oct 2010 - Dec 2011)

From: Baseline characteristics and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in newly visiting or referred chronic kidney disease patients to nephrology centers in Japan: a prospective cohort study

  Unadjusted OR [95% CI] P- value Adjusted OR [95% CI] P- value
Hypertension 4.07 [2.10 - 7.90 ] <0.001 3.57 [1.82 - 7.02] <0.001
Diabetes 2.32 [1.77 - 3.03] <0.001 2.45 [1.86 - 3.23] <0.001
BMI     
Optimal BMI (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
≥ 25 kg/m2 1.10 [0.82 - 1.49] 0.513 1.27 [0.93 - 1.74] 0.130
< 18.5 kg/m2 0.77 [0.43 -1.39] 0.391 0.74 [0.40 - 1.36] 0.329
CKD stage     
Stage 2 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
Stage 3 3.57 [1.61 - 7.95] 0.002 2.56 [1.14 - 5.78] 0.023
Stage 4 6.98 [3.14 - 15.53] <0.001 4.79 [2.12 - 10.81] <0.001
Stage 5 5.55 [2.43 - 12.65] <0.001 4.37 [1.89 - 10.11] 0.001
UPCR     
< 0.15 g/gCr 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
0.15 to 0.49 g/gCr 1.21 [0.78 - 1.89] 0.402 1.23 [0.78 - 1.94] 0.378
≥ 0.5 g/gCr 1.55 [1.11 - 2.16] 0.009 1.77 [1.26 - 2.50] 0.001
SBP ≥ 130 mmHg 0.90 [0.68 - 1.18] 0.438 0.93 [0.70 - 1.23] 0.600
Anti-hypertensive therapy 3.92 [2.53 - 6.07] <0.001 3.54 [2.27 - 5.53] <0.001
Use of ARB or ACEI 1.72 [1.29 - 2.29] <0.001 1.64 [1.22 - 2.20] 0.001
Use of calcium channel blocker 1.55 [1.19 - 2.02] 0.001 1.55 [1.18 - 2.03] 0.002
Use of diuretics 1.61 [1.08 - 2.38] 0.019 2.44 [1.84 - 3.24] <0.001
Hb < 11 g/dl 1.63 [1.24 - 2.13] <0.001 1.61 [1.21 - 2.15] 0.001
Iron deficiency 2.03 [1.40 - 2.94] <0.001 2.41 [1.63 - 3.58] <0.001
Use of ESA 2.10 [1.43 - 3.10] <0.001 1.93 [1.29 - 2.89] 0.001
Use of oral iron supplementation 2.01 [1.17 - 3.44] 0.011 2.15 [1.22 - 3.80] 0.008
LDL-C ≥ 120 mg/dl 0.44 [0.31 - 0.61] <0.001 0.49 [0.34 - 0.68] <0.001
HDL-C < 40 mg/dl 2.45 [1.80 - 3.35] <0.001 2.29 [1.66 - 3.16] <0.001
TG ≥ 150 mg/dl 0.81 [0.61 - 1.08] 0.149 0.92 [0.69 - 1.23] 0.575
Use of statin 2.48 [1.88 - 3.27] <0.001 2.73 [2.04 - 3.66] <0.001
Corrected Ca < 8.4 mg/dl 0.49 [0.19 - 1.30] 0.152 0.46 [0.17 - 1.22] 0.118
P ≥ 4.6 mg/dl 1.12 [0.72 - 1.76] 0.611 1.34 [0.84 - 2.14] 0.214
Intact PTH > 65 pg/ml 1.80 [1.33 - 2.43] <0.001 1.86 [1.36 - 2.54] <0.001
  1. Odds ratio (OR) was adjusted by age and gender. CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, UPCR urinary protein to creatinine ratio, g/gCr gram per gram creatinine, SBP systolic blood pressure, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, Hb hemoglobin, ESA erythropoiesis stimulating agent, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, Ca calcium, P phosphorus, PTH parathyroid hormone.