Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary results of logistic regression analysis for exposures

From: Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country

Exposure   95% CI   
  OR Lower Upper Pvalue n
Education      
  No education Reference     174
  School grades 1–9 0.900 0.612 1.323 0.594 4374
  Higher 1.201 0.588 2.452 0.614 74
Smoking      
  Never Reference     3480
  Current/former 1.072 0.813 1.415 0.619 1126
Illicit alcohol consumption      
  Never Reference     3701
  Occasional/frequent/past 1.184 0.905 1.548 0.216 874
Occupation      
  Other Reference     2816
  Farmer 1.195 1.007 1.418 0.041 1780
Agriculture type      
  Non-paddy Reference     315
  Paddy 0.732 0.542 0.988 0.042 2620
Years working in agriculture      
  <10 Reference     660
  10–19 0.834 0.603 1.152 0.271 777
  20–49 1.092 0.777 1.535 0.611 1182
  ≥50 1.322 0.462 3.785 0.602 22
Source of drinking water      
  Not well Reference     798
  Well 0.971 0.785 1.202 0.793 3819
Water storage container      
  Others Reference     1741
  Aluminium 1.03 0.87 1.22 0.715 2879
Protection from agrochemicals      
  Yes Reference     191
  No 1.011 0.661 1.546 0.959 4271
  1. Separate logistic regressions have been run per exposure variable; OR < 1 means protective, and OR > 1 means that the exposure increases the odds of CKDu. The total number (n) of observations varies per exposure, owing to missing data. All results are adjusted for sex and age. For all analyses, male sex was found to be protective and the risk increased with age.
  2. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio.
  3. Being male reduced the risk of CKDu (OR = 0.745, 95% CI = 0.562 to 0.988; P < 0.05), and being >39 years increased the risk of CKDu (OR = 1.926, 95% CI = 1.561 to 2.376, P < 0.001).