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Table 3 Urine concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead for CKDu cases compared with controls from the endemic and non-endemic areas

From: Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country

  Mean, median (range) of concentration in urine (μg/g creatinine)
  Arsenic Cadmium Lead
CKDu cases (n = 495) 45.447, 26.3 (0.4 to 616.6) 1.039, 0.695 (0.005 to 8.93) 1.153, 0.95 (0.04 to 8.53)
Controls from endemic area (n = 132) 92.443, 6.99 (0.2 to 966.29) 0.646, 0.18, (0.005 to 5.13)a 1.254, 0.793 (1.21 to 6.64)
Controls from non-endemic area (n = 250) 56.572, 42.025 (5.38 to 350.28) 0.345, 0.265 (0.005 to 2.079)b 2.099, 1.434 (0.277 to 20.9)
  1. a Urine cadmium concentration of cases compared to controls from endemic area P < 0.001.
  2. b Urine cadmium concentration of cases compared to controls from non-endemic area P < 0.05.