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Table 4 Pesticide residues in urine of CKDu cases ( n= 57)

From: Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country

Parent compound Biomarker Reference limit (μg/l) CKDu cases (μg/l), (minimum, maximum) CKDu cases above reference limit (%)
2,4-D 2,4-D <0.3 0.5, 0.62 3.5
Pentachlorophenol Pentachlorophenol <2 0.3, 2.2 1.7
Chlorpyrifos 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol <11.3 0.5, 34.7 10.5
Parathion p-nitrophenol <25 0.5, 8.88 0
Carbaryl naphthalene 1-naphthol <19.7 0.5, 45.1 10.5
Naphthalene 2-naphthol, <17.1 0.94, 47.88 10.5
Glyphosate Glyphosate <2 0.075, 3.36 3.5
Glyphosate AMPA <0.5 0.075, 2.65 14