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Table 2 Incidence rate and hazard ratios for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected and HCV-uninfected control groups during the 6-year follow-up period (n = 15910)

From: Hepatitis C virus itself is a causal risk factor for chronic kidney disease beyond traditional risk factors: a 6-year nationwide cohort study across Taiwan

  Control group HCV-infected group p
(n = 12728) N (%) (n = 3182) N (%)
No. of CKD 187 (1.5) 64 (2.0) 0.028
Mean follow-up (y) 5.92 5.88 0.0004
Total follow-up (person-year) 75371 18697  
Incidence ratea 2.48 3.42 0.02
Mean time to CKD (y) 3.13 2.36 0.003
Crude HR (95% CI) 1.00 (reference) 1.38 (1.04-1.83) 0.026
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b 1.00 (reference) 1.75 (1.25-2.43) 0.0009
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio.
  2. aPer 1000 person-years.
  3. bAdjusted for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, liver cirrhosis, geographic region, urbanization level, enrolee category, and number of healthcare visits in 1 year before study entry.
  4. Note: Adjusted HR with 95% CI of CKD in association with HCV was 1.97 (1.43-2.73, p < 0.0001) if the number of healthcare visits was not included in multivariate analysis.