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Table 5 Odds ratios of hydronephrosis on renal ultrasound in AKI based on patient characteristics*

From: Clinical utility of gray scale renal ultrasound in acute kidney injury

Patient characteristic Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P Value
  Age ≥ 65 2.26 (1.11, 4.62) 0.025
Medical history   
  Nephrolithiasis 3.44 (0.76, 15.6) 0.109
  Abdominal malignancy 3.25 (1.42, 7.47) 0.005
  ‡Other 7.73 (2.26, 26.5) 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: RUS renal ultrasound, BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy, Cr creatinine.
  2. *Odds ratios and P values determined by multivariate logistic regression model including variables with bivariate logistic regression P-value < 0.2 (age ≥ 65, nephrolithiasis, abdominal malignancy, and other ‡).
  3. ‡Other includes neurogenic bladder, retroperitoneal fibrosis, congenital renal or urinary tract anomaly, prior pelvic surgery, prior ectopic pregnancy, prior pelvic inflammatory disease, prior surgery on kidney for reason other than cancer, and abdominal trauma.