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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate odds ratios of an adverse outcome over 30 months of follow up, adjusted for CKD and hypertension

From: Association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and failure to monitor renal function with adverse outcomes in people with diabetes: a primary care cohort study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis (MLM)
Characteristic: Odds ratio (95% CI) P = Odds ratio (95% CI) P =
Age (years) 1.06 (1.06-1.06) <0.001 1.05 (1.05-1.05) <0.001
Gender: female 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
Gender: male 1.21 (1.13-1.31) <0.001 1.24 (1.14-1.36) <0.001
Ethnicity     
White 1.00 (reference) - - -
Mixed 0.61 (0.41-0.92) 0.019 - -
Asian 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.488 - -
Black 0.98 (0.97-1.00) 0.016 - -
Other 0.95 (0.80-1.13) 0.591 - -
Missing 1.02 (0.94-1.11) 0.640 - -
Smoking Status     
Not recorded 1.18 (1.07-1.31) 0.002 0.95 (0.84-1.08) 0.472
Never smoked 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
Current Smoker 1.39 (1.24-1.57) <0.001 1.38 (1.24-1.54) <0.001
Ex-smoker 1.82 (1.61-2.06) <0.001 1.18 (1.05-1.32) 0.005
Alcohol Consumption     
Not recorded 0.93 (0.85-1.01) 0.090 1.07 (0.96-1.20) 0.223
No alcohol 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
Light alcohol 0.87 (0.79-0.96) 0.004 0.88 (0.79-0.97) 0.013
Excess alcohol 1.04 (0.87-1.23) 0.688 1.24 (1.03-1.49) 0.024
Previous excess alcohol 1.16 (0.66-2.02) 0.610 1.04 (0.56-1.93) 0.895
Comorbidities     
BMI (kg/m2) 1.01 (0.99-1.02) 0.276 - -
Heart failure 3.39 (2.99-3.83) <0.001 1.30 (1.13-1.49) <0.001
Dialysis 3.03 (1.88-4.89) <0.001 1.76 (1.04-2.99) 0.036
Stroke 3.96 (3.49-4.48) <0.001 2.26 (1.98-2.59) <0.001
Transient ischaemic attack 3.27 (2.82-3.79) <0.001 1.58 (1.34-1.86) <0.001
Ischaemic heart disease 3.03 (2.80-3.27) <0.001 1.64 (1.47-1.84) <0.001
Coronary artery operation 2.63 (2.35-2.94) <0.001 1.26 (1.09-1.44) 0.001
Myocardial infarction 2.88 (2.56-3.24) <0.001 1.23 (1.06-1.42) 0.005
Investigations     
ACR: not monitored 0.77 (0.71-0.84) <0.001 1.33 (1.19-1.50) <0.001
ACR: normal 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
ACR: microalbuminuria 1.46 (1.31-1.62) <0.001 1.16 (1.01-1.32) 0.034
ACR: macroalbuminuria 2.70 (2.26-3.23) <0.001 2.32 (1.88-2.86) <0.001
HbA1c: not measured 0.99 (0.98-1.01) 0.226 - -
HbA1c: < 7.5% 1.00 (reference) - - -
HbA1c: > 7.5% 1.16 (1.01-1.33) 0.224 - -
Total cholesterol: not monitored 0.89 (0.76-1.05) 0.160 - -
Total cholesterol: < 5.0 mmol/l 1.00 (reference) - - -
Total cholesterol: > 5.0 mmol/l 0.88 (0.74-1.04) 0.134 - -
LDL cholesterol: not monitored 1.13 (1.05-1.22) 0.002 1.23 (1.08-1.40) 0.002
LDL cholesterol: normal 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
LDL cholesterol: high 0.85 (0.75-0.96) 0.007 1.15 (1.01-1.31) 0.030
HDL cholesterol: not monitored 1.09 (0.98-1.20) 0.106 1.19 (1.02-1.39) 0.025
HDL cholesterol: normal 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
HDL cholesterol: low 1.13 (1.02-1.25) 0.022 1.17 (1.05-1.31) 0.006
Multilevel model performance:   Random effects:  
Bayesian information criteria (BIC) 19022 Intercepts for GP practice:
Log-likelihood -9312 Variance 0.111
ROC curve statistic 0.767 Standard deviation 0.334
  1. Abbreviations: MLM, multilevel model; CI, confidence interval.