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Table 4 Effect of 0.9% isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl), 3.0% hypertonic saline (3% NaCl) and 5% glucose (Glucose) on 51 Cr-EDTA-clearance, plasma sodium, plasma albumin, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse rate in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 23 healthy subjects

From: Effect of volume expansion with hypertonic- and isotonic saline and isotonic glucose on sodium and water transport in the principal cells in the kidney

Periods Baseline Infusion Post infusion p (GLM-within)
  0-90 min 90-150 min 150-180 min 180-210 min 210-240 min  
51 Cr-EDTA-clearance (ml/min/1.73 m 2 )
0.9% NaCl 98.1(10.1) 97.2(9.9) 100.0(12.4) 106.4(19.5) 106.1(13.3)** 0.002
3% NaCl 95.7(10.4) 93.0(11.4) 96.6(14.8) 97.0(14.8) 101.8(13.9)***  
Glucose 96.9(10.3) 100.0 (9.9) 105.9(10.5) 104.0(13.9) 99.1(9.7)  
p (GLM between)   0.244     
p-Sodium (mmol/l)
0.9% NaCl 138.1(2.1) 139.4(2.1) 139.6(2.4) 139.1(2.4) 138.7(2.3)** <0.0001
3% NaCl 138.0(2.0) 142.5(1.8) 141.7(1.7) 141.1(2.1) 139.7(2.0)*  
Glucose 138.1(2.0) 128.7(3.7) 134.1(3.6) 135.7(3.7) 136.9(2.9)*  
p (GLM between)   <0.0001     
p (ANOVA) 0.94 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 =0.001  
p-albumin (g/L)
0.9% NaCl 40.3(2.6) 40.1(2.4) 35.3(2.0) 35.8(2.1) 36.0(2.2)* <0.0001
3% NaCl 40.1(2.6) 39.8(2.6) 35.2(2.2) 36.0(2.3) 36.2(2.7)*  
Glucose 40.9(2.2) 40.3(2.8) 36.1(2.5) 39.1(2.7) 39.7(2.9)*  
p (GLM between)   <0.05     
p (ANOVA) 0.510 0.765 0.328 <0.0001 <0.0001  
SBP (mmHg)
0.9% NaCl 114.5(10.6) 117.7(10.4) 116.6(11.0) 116.9(11.6) 117.7(11.5) 0.439
3% NaCl 114.0(9.5) 117.9(9.1) 117.2(9.2) 115.5(10.0) 116.4(9.7)  
Glucose 115.5(8.4) 118.2(9.8) 117.7(9.1) 115.5(8.2) 117.0(9.1)  
p (GLM between)   0.975     
DBP (mmHg)
0.9% NaCl 62.9(4.3) 64.0(6.1) 62.2(5.7) 63.3(5.6) 63.4(5.1) 0.038
3% NaCl 62.9(4.2) 62.1(5.0) 61.0(5.4) 61.4(4.9) 62.9(4.9)  
Glucose 64.4(4.2) 65.8(5.6) 65.3(6.3) 65.5(5.3) 63.6(7.5)  
p (GLM between)   0.12     
Pulse rate
0.9% NaCl 54.1(11.0) 57.2(11.9) 56.4(11.6) 58.0(12.1) 57.4(11.9)* <0.0001
3% NaCl 54.0(10.5) 58.2(11.2) 57.0(11.2) 56.9(11.3) 57.7(11.5)*  
Glucose 54.7(10.5) 57.4(12.5) 57.1(12.0) 60.3(11.7) 61.3(12.3)*  
p (GLM between)   0.917     
  1. Values are mean with SD in brackets. General linear model (GLM) with repeated measures was performed for comparison within the group and intervention as between subjects factor. One way ANOVA was performed for comparison of means when differences were found between intervensions. Paired t-test was used for comparison within treatment groups at baseline and post infusion period 210 – 240 minutes. *p < 0.0001; **p < 0.001; ***p < 0.05.