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Table 1 Observational Studies in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome

From: The rationale and design of Insight into Nephrotic Syndrome: Investigating Genes, Health and Therapeutics (INSIGHT): a prospective cohort study of childhood nephrotic syndrome

Author Year N Ethnicity Mean Age at Onset?±?SD, yrs (Range) Male (%) Mean Follow-Up Time?±?SD, yrs (Range) Steroid Resistant (%)
Retrospective Studies        
Ingulli [5] 1991 177 Black & Hispanic 7.3?±?4.6 No data 8.25?±?4.3 15.3%
     (1.0-16.75)   (1-15)  
   65 Caucasian 7.8?±?4.8   8.8?±?4.1 6.2%
     (2-14.8)   (2-14.8)  
Bircan [8] 2002 138 Turkish 4.9?±?3.56 61.2% 3.4?±?2.31 13.2%
     (1-15)   (1-6)  
Ozkaya [9] 2004 392 Turkish 4.6?±?3.4 59.2% 2 23%b
     (0.9-16)a    
Kim [10] 2005 103 Caucasian 4.3?±?3.5 51% No data 3.6%
   96 African-American 8.2?±?5.2   No data 11%
Bhimma [3] 2006 816 Black & Indian 4.8 60.4% 2.5 27.3%
     (1.2-16)   (0.1-16.5)  
Chang [11] 2009 99 Chinese 8.35?±?4.61 73.7% 5.06?±?4.35 N/Ae
     (2-18)    
Mubarak [6] 2009 538 Pakistani 9.79?±?4.59 64.4% No data 31.1%
     (0.8-18)a    
Otukesh [12] 2009 73 Iranian 5.9 52.0% 6.0?±?4.2 100%
       (0.5-16)  
Copelovitch [4] 2010 112 Cambodian 8.95 63.4% 15.1 6.25%
     (0.6-15.75)   (3.7-2.73)  
Banaszak [13] 2012 76 Caucasian (Poland)c 2.7 (median) 54.5% No data 15.8%
   102 Caucasian (Poland)d 3.3 (median) 68% No data 31.3%
Prospective Studies        
Kumar [14] 2003 290 Northern and Eastern Indian 7.9?±?5.1 73.4% No data 38%b
Wong [15](Registry) 2007 49 New Zealand European, Maori, Pacific Islander, Asian, Other 6.1?±?3.8 71.4% 1 19.6%
Bakkali [16](Registry) 2011 231 No data (Netherlands) 5.08 67.1% 4 N/Ae
  1. a indicates age of study group, where age at onset not specified.
  2. b estimated based on participants diagnosed with FSGS.
  3. c indicates patients treated with NS between 1986-1995.
  4. d indicates patients treated with NS between 1996-2005.
  5. e no steroid resistance reported.