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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of men with different self-reported drinking histories

From: Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with stage 3 chronic kidney disease in middle-aged Taiwanese men

  Overall Non-drinkers Occasional drinkers Frequent drinkers p
Variable (n = 11900) (n = 8015) (n = 3246) (n = 639)
Age (years) 58.82 ± 12.04 60.87 ± 12.14 54.55 ± 10.66 54.85 ± 10.54 <0.001
Stage 3 CKD, n (%) 2064(17.3) 1640(20.5) 361(11.1) 63(9.9) <0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 74.41 ± 16.17 72.85 ± 16.24 77.38 ± 15.41 78.90 ± 16.07 <0.001
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.13 ± 0.22 1.14 ± 0.23 1.10 ± 0.19 1.08 ± 0.19 <0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 5372(45.1) 3703(46.2) 1355(41.7) 314(49.1) <0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 133.01 ± 19.56 133.19 ± 19.78 132.08 ± 19.02 135.52 ± 19.25 <0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.26 ± 12.25 78.55 ± 12.13 80.25 ± 12.34 83.09 ± 12.37 <0.001
Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 432(3.6) 287(3.6) 124(3.8) 21(3.3) 0.739
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 206.68 ± 41.30 205.62 ± 40.15 209.54 ± 43.17 205.49 ± 45.06 <0.001
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 156.70 ± 166.51 143.66 ± 115.73 173.54 ± 228.20 234.76 ± 272.61 <0.001
Hyperuricemia, n (%) 4629(38.9) 2997(37.4) 1334(41.1) 298(46.6) <0.001
Uric acid (mg/dL) 6.75 ± 1.62 6.69 ± 1.64 6.83 ± 1.52 7.02 ± 1.72 <0.001
Diabetes, n (%) 1767(14.8) 1233(15.4) 415(12.8) 119(18.6) <0.001
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) 107.03 ± 40.24 106.86 ± 39.70 106.60 ± 40.65 111.37 ± 44.42 0.019
Liver dysfunction, n (%) 2480(20.8) 1581(19.7) 732(22.6) 167(26.1) <0.001
ALT (IU/L) 37.14 ± 42.86 36.28 ± 44.58 38.32 ± 37.89 41.97 ± 44.22 0.001
Anemia, n (%) 719(6.0) 582(7.3) 109(3.4) 28(4.4) <0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 15.19 ± 1.44 15.06 ± 1.45 15.43 ± 1.32 15.55 ± 1.54 <0.001
WBC count (103/μL) 6.51 ± 1.99 6.47 ± 1.95 6.57 ± 1.82 6.79 ± 3.01 <0.001
Proteinuria, n (%) 1310(11.0) 910(11.4) 308(9.5) 92(14.4) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.11 ± 3.47 24.94 ± 3.48 25.50 ± 3.34 25.29 ± 3.76 <0.001
Smoking, n (%) 3024(25.4) 1425(17.8) 1192(36.7) 407(63.7) <0.001
Betel nut chewing, n (%) 1538(12.9) 484(6.0) 760(23.4) 294(46.0) <0.001
  1. †In this table and Table 2, results are expressed as n (%) or mean ± SD.