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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population overall and by sex

From: Chronic kidney diseases in mixed ancestry south African populations: prevalence, determinants and concordance between kidney function estimators

Variables Male Female p-value overall
N 297 905   1202
Mean age, year (SD) 54.2 (15.4) 52.4 (14.6) 0.06 52.9 (14.8)
Mean body mass index, kg/m2 (SD) 26.6 (6.4) 31.0 (7.1) <0.0001 29.9 (7.2)
Mean waist circumference, cm (SD) 94 (15) 97 (15) 0.002 96 (15)
Mean hip circumference, cm (SD) 101 (11) 112 (14) <0.0001 109 (14)
Mean waist-to-hip ratio, (SD) 0.93 (0.08) 0.87 (0.09) <0.0001 0.88 (0.09)
Mean systolic blood pressure, mmHg (SD) 128 (19) 124 (20) 0.0006 125 (20)
Mean diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (SD) 78 (14) 75 (12) 0.001 76 (13)
Mean fasting blood glucose, mmol/l (SD) 6.4 (3.4) 6.3 (2.6) 0.55 6.3 (3.0)
Mean 2-hour blood glucose, mmol/l (SD) 6.8 (3.0) 7.5 (3.6) 0.001 7.4 (3.5)
Mean HbA1c,% (SD) 6.3 (1.6) 6.3 (1.4) 0.75 6.3 (1.4)
Mean total cholesterol, mmol/l (SD) 5.3 (1.1) 5.6 (1.2) 0.0001 5.6 (1.2)
Mean triglycerides, mmol/l (SD) 1.5 (0.9) 1.5 (0.9) 0.17 1.5 (0.9)
Mean HDL cholesterol, mmol/l (SD) 1.2 (0.4) 1.3 (0.3) 0.0001 1.3 (0.4)
Mean LDL cholesterol, mmol/l (SD) 3.4 (1.0) 3.7 (1.0) 0.0006 3.6 (1.0)
Median serum cotinine, (25th-75th percentiles) 10 (10–311) 10 (9–378) 0.05 10 (9–284)
Median GGT, (25th-75th percentiles) 32 (23–49) 25 (18–39) <0.0001 27 (19–42)
Any diabetes, n (%) 80 (26.9) 237 (26.2) 0.80 317 (26.4%)
Current smoking, n (%) 146 (49.2) 341 (37.7) 0.0005 487 (40.5)
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ml/min     
Cockcroft-Gault, mean (SD) 84.1 (27.0) 94.2 (33.7) <0.0001 91.7 (32.5)
Cockcroft-Gault <60, n (%) 57 (19.2) 121 (13.4) 0.014 178 (14.8)
4-v-MDRD, mean (SD) 102.8 (26.5) 95.4 (28.0) <0.0001 97.3 (27.8)
4-v-MDRD <60, n (%) 15 (5.0) 77 (8.5) 0.05 92 (7.6)
4-v-MDRD without ethnicity correction, mean (SD) 79.9 (20.6) 74.2 (21.8) <0.0001 75.6 (21.6)
4-v-MDRD without ethnicity correction <60, n (%) 45 (15.1) 242 (26.7) <0.0001 287 (23.9)
CKD-EPI, mean (SD) 97.2 (23.0) 93.4 (25.7) 0.02 94.3 (25.1)
CKD-EPI <60, n (%) 17 (5.7) 72 (8.0) 0.20 89 (7.4)
CKD-EPI without ethnicity correction, mean (SD) 83.9 (19.9) 80.6 (22.1) 0.02 81.4 (21.6)
CKD-EPI without ethnicity correction <60, n (%) 38 (12.8) 170 (18.8) 0.02 208 (17.3)
  1. Abbreviations: CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Collaboration Epidemiology; GGT, gamma glutamyltransferase; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; 4-v-MDRD, four variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; SD, standard deviation.