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Table 3 Determinants of CKD stage 3–5 (age, sex and cohort adjusted analyses)

From: Chronic kidney diseases in mixed ancestry south African populations: prevalence, determinants and concordance between kidney function estimators

Variables MDRD MDRD corrected CKD-EPI CKD-EPI corrected CG
Age (/year) 1.10 (1.08-1.11) 1.11 (1.09-1.13) 1.13 (1.11-1.15) 1.14 (1.11-1.17) 1.18 (1.15-1.21)
Female gender 3.08 (2.07-4.69) 2.42 (1.34-4.63) 2.56 (1.63-4.10) 2.09 (1.15-3.98) 0.74 (0.47-1.63)
Cohort 0.24 (0.15-0.39) 0.44 (0.19-0.91) 0.34 (0.19-0.58) 0.28 (0.09-0.66) 0.35 (0.18-0.64)
Current smoking 0.99 (0.71-1.39) 0.67 (0.37-1.17) 0.84 (0.55-1.26) 0.55 (0.38-1.02) 1.72 (1.09-2.77)
BMI (/kg/m2) 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 1.01 (0.98-1.05) 1.01 (0.98-1.04) 1.00 (0.96-1.04) 0.82 (0.79-0.86)
WC (/cm) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 1.01 (1.00-1.03) 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.01 (0.99-1.02) 0.93 (0.91-0.94)
Hip circumference (/cm) 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 0.91 (0.89-0.93)
WHR (/unit) 0.66 (0.09-4.68) 14.63 (0.89-152) 1.01 (0.10-9.85) 9.86 (0.40-176) 0.03 (0.002-0.44)
SBP (/mm Hg) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.99 (0.98-1.01) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.99 (0.98-1.00) 0.99 (0.98-1.00)
DBP (/mm Hg) 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.01) 0.98 (0.96-1.00)
Known hypertension 1.96 (1.35-2.90) 2.54 (1.35-5.16) 1.98 (1.27-3.18) 2.55 (1.31-5.31) 1.34 (0.82-2.23)
FBG (/mmol/L) 0.98 (0.93-1.03) 1.06 (0.99-1.13) 1.00 (0.94-1.06) 1.05 (0.97-1.13) 0.97 (0.90-1.04)
PostBG (/mmol/L) 0.97 (0.92-1.02) 0.96 (0.88-1.03) 0.96 (0.90-1.01) 0.95 (0.87-1.03) 0.93 (0.87-1.00)
HbA1c (/%) 0.95 (0.84-1.06) 1.16 (1.00-1.32) 1.00 (0.88-1.13) 1.15 (0.98-1.33) 1.00 (0.86-1.15)
TC (/mmol/L) 1.10 (0.96-1.26) 1.04 (0.85-1.27) 1.19 (1.02-1.39) 0.96 (0.78-1.18) 0.96 (0.80-1.15)
TG (/mmol/L) 1.13 (0.96-1.33) 1.37 (1.07-1.70) 1.23 (1.01-1.48) 1.37 (1.04-1.75) 0.97 (0.74-1.25)
HDL-C (/mmol/L) 0.88 (0.55-1.39) 0.44 (0.20-0.92) 0.95 (0.55-1.61) 0.54 (0.24-1.16) 2.12 (1.19-3.74)
LDL-C (/mmol/L) 1.09 (0.94-1.27) 1.02 (0.81-1.28) 1.17 (0.98-1.39) 0.92 (0.72-1.16) 0.88 (0.72-1.07)
Serum cotinine 0.95 (0.86-1.05) 0.93 (0.79-1.08) 0.95 (0.85-1.07) 0.90 (0.76-1.07) 1.22 (1.07-1.39)
GGT (/unit) 1.09 (0.86-1.38) 1.17 (0.79-1.72) 1.03 (0.76-1.38) 1.20 (0.78-1.83) 1.25 (0.88-1.76)
Any diabetes 1.17 (0.83-1.63) 1.55 (0.96-2.46) 1.16 (0.79-1.69) 1.55 (0.94-2.55) 1.12 (0.73-1.71)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CG, Cockcroft-Gault; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Collaboration Epidemiology; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; GGT, gamma glutamyltransferase; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; 4-v-MDRD, four variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.