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Table 3 Changes in inflammatory biomarkers during the experiments

From: Effect of hyperinsulinemia during hemodialysis on the insulin-like growth factor system and inflammatory biomarkers: a randomized open-label crossover study

Inflammatory biomarkers HD start End of study pa pb
(0 min) (360 min)
P-Albumin (g/L) Overall: 38.8 ± 2.1 Overall: 40.4 ± 2.5 0.12 < 0.001
Mean ± SD NT: 39.5 ± 1.4 NT: 41.3 ± 2.3   
  G: 38.1 ± 1.9 G: 40.4 ± 2.7   
  GI: 38.6 ± 2.8 GI: 39.6 ± 2.4   
P-Fibrinogen (μmol/L) Overall: 11.7 ± 1.7 Overall: 12.8 ± 1.8 0.12 < 0.001
Mean ± SD NT: 11.9 ± 1.9 NT: 13.0 ± 2.0
  G: 11.6 ± 1.6 G: 12.6 ± 1.6
GI: 11.7 ± 1.9 GI: 12.8 ± 2.0
S-hsCRP (mg/L) Overall: 4.52 [0.40-10.68] Overall: 4.67 [0.44-11.25] 0.61 0.55
Median [range] NT: 4.75 [0.58-10.08] NT: 6.06 [0.55-11.25]
  G: 3.21 [0.50-8.20] G: 3.35 [0.57-7.96]
  GI: 6.48 [0.40-10.68] GI: 6.40 [0.44-10.23]
P-IL-1β (ng/L) Overall: 0.042 [0.010-0.185] Overall: 0.039 [0.010-0.095] 0.68 0.002
Median [range] NT: 0.042 [0.011-0.185] NT: 0.031 [0.011-0.049]
  G: 0.041 [0.010-0.157] G: 0.039 [0.010-0.095]
  GI: 0.043 [0.010-0.166] GI: 0.039 [0.029-0.079]
P-IL-6 (ng/L) Overall: 0.19 [0.04-2.33] Overall: 0.18 [0.02-0.89] 0.96 0.25
Median [range] NT: 0.14 [0.08-1.84] NT: 0.19 [0.04-0.89]
  G: 0.21 [0.04-0.97] G: 0.17 [0.05-0.34]
  GI: 0.20 [0.06-2.33] GI: 0.30 [0.02-0.45]
P-TNF-α (ng/L) Overall: 0.42 [0.02-9.36] Overall: 0.29 [0.02-1.82] 0.76 0.09
Median [range] NT: 0.27 [0.10-8.53] NT: 0.27 [0.02-1.82]
  G: 0.51 [0.02-2.89] G: 0.26 [0.03-1.75]
  GI: 0.36 [0.25-9.36] GI: 0.46 [0.25-1.33]
  1. Abbreviations: HD, hemodialysis; NT, no treatment; G, glucose infusion; GI, glucose-insulin infusion; hsCRP, High-sensitivity CRP; IL-1β, interleukin-1β; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α.
  2. ap-value for comparison of differences in the change over time between no treatment (NT), glucose infusion (G), and glucose-insulin infusion (GI) study days.
  3. bp-value for comparison of overall change in biomarkers from HD start to the end of the study.