Skip to main content

Table 3 Association between blood pressure (BP) categories and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 in Malay population

From: Ethnic differences in the association between blood pressure components and chronic kidney disease in middle aged and older Asian adults

BP categories No. at risk (cases) Prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2(%) Age, sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) Multivariable model 1* OR (95% CI) Multivariable model 2† OR (95% CI)
JNC-7 BP category‡      
   Normal 300 (15) 5.0 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) -
   Prehypertension 757 (84) 11.1 1.65 (0.92-2.97) 1.55 (0.85-2.81)  
   Stage1 hypertension 877 (181) 20.6 2.51 (1.43-4.43) 2.25 (1.27-4.01)  
   Stage 2 hypertension 1148 (406) 35.4 4.19 (2.40-7.32) 3.58 (2.03-6.32)  
   P trend    <0.0001 <0.0001  
Hypertensive status      
   Normotensive 1057 (99) 9.4 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) -
   Hypertensive 2025 (587) 29.0 2.26 (1.77-2.90) 2.08 (1.62-2.68)  
Systolic BP quartiles      
   Quartile 1 (84–129 mm Hg) 761 (81) 10.6 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
   Quartile 2 (130–143 mm Hg) 744 (132) 17.7 1.40 (1.02-1.92) 1.29 (0.94-1.79) 1.25 (0.90-1.73)
   Quartile 3 (144–162 mm Hg) 7987 (196) 24.6 1.71 (1.26-2.31) 1.53 (1.12-2.09) 1.46 (1.07-2.00)
   Quartile 4 (163–275 mm Hg) 7794 (277) 35.6 2.19 (1.63-2.95) 1.97 (1.45-2.66) 1.94 (1.43-2.64)
   P trend    <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Each 10 units increase in systolic BP    1.13 (1.09-1.18) 1.11 (1.07-1.16) 1.12 (1.07-1.17)
Diastolic BP quartiles      
   Quartile 1 (48–70 mm Hg) 727 (152) 20.9 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
   Quartile 2 (71–77 mm Hg) 752 (172) 22.9 1.04 (0.79-1.36) 1.05 (0.80-1.38) 1.06 (0.80-1.39)
   Quartile 3 (78–86 mm Hg) 833 (173) 20.8 1.02 (0.78-1.33) 1.00 (0.76-1.32) 1.03 (0.78-1.36)
   Quartile 4 (87–131 mm Hg) 770 (189) 24.6 1.27 (0.97-1.66) 1.31 (0.99-1.72) 1.39 (1.05-1.83)
   P trend    0.1 0.08 0.03
Each 10 units increase in diastolic BP    1.09 (1.00-1.19) 1.10 (1.01-1.20) 1.13 (1.04-1.23)
Pulse pressure quartiles      
   Quartile 1 (26–52 mm Hg) 758 (64) 8.4 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
   Quartile 2 (53–65 mm Hg) 781 (130) 16.7 1.47 (1.05-2.07) 1.33 (0.94-1.88) 1.30 (0.91-1.84)
   Quartile 3 (66–79 mm Hg) 765 (192) 25.1 1.82 (1.31-2.54) 1.51 (1.07-2.12) 1.45 (1.03-2.04)
   Quartile 4 (80–136 mm hg) 778 (300) 38.6 2.58 (1.85-3.61) 2.10 (1.49-2.95) 2.04 (1.44-2.87)
   P trend    <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Each 10 units increase in pulse pressure    1.21 (1.14-1.28) 1.17 (1.10-1.24) 1.16 (1.09-1.23)
  1. Abbreviations: eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; * Adjusted for age (years), gender, education (primary and below, high school and above), body mass index (kg/m2), smoking (current, former, never), alcohol intake (present, absent), diabetes status (present, absent).
  2. † Adjusted for variables in model 1 + antihypertensive medication use.
  3. ‡ BP classified according to Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee (JNC 7) on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and
  4. Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria (normal, systolic BP <120 mm Hg and diastolic BP <80 mm Hg; prehypertension,
  5. systolic BP 120–139 or diastolic BP 80–89 mm Hg; stage 1 hypertension, systolic BP 140–159 or diastolic BP 90–99 mm Hg;
  6. stage 2 hypertension, systolic BP ≥160 or diastolic BP ≥100 mm Hg).
  7. Hypertension was defined as a self-reported current use of antihypertensive medication or systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg.