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Table 5 Summary of odds ratio of CKD for BP components by ethnicity

From: Ethnic differences in the association between blood pressure components and chronic kidney disease in middle aged and older Asian adults

Ethnic groups Multivariable model 1 OR (95% CI)* Multivariable model 2 OR (95% CI) †
Hypertension (normotensive Vs. hypertensive)
   Chinese 3.27 (1.94-5.53) 2.71 (1.59-4.63)
   Malays 2.26 (1.77-2.90) 2.08 (1.62-2.68)
   Indians 2.86 (1.97-4.16) 2.43 (1.66-3.57)
Systolic BP (Q4 Vs. Q1)
   Chinese 0.68 (0.42-1.11) 0.64 (0.39-1.07)
   Malays 1.97 (1.45-2.66) 1.94 (1.43-2.64)
   Indians 1.06 (0.71-1.59) 0.96 (0.64-1.45)
Diastolic BP (Q4 Vs. Q1)
   Chinese 0.53 (0.34-0.83) 0.63 (0.36-1.09)
   Malays 1.31 (0.99-1.72) 1.39 (1.05-1.83)
   Indians 0.54 (0.32-0.90) 0.71 (0.45-1.13)
  1. Abbreviations: BP, blood pressure; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; Q, quartile.
  2. * Adjusted for age, gender, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, diabetes.
  3. † Adjusted for variables in model 1 + antihypertensive medication use.