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Table 3 Mortality risk for relatively high biochemical parameter values versus referent values

From: Is there an association between elevated or low serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease? A meta-analysis

Study Reference range N* RR for high values vs. referent (95% CI) Follow-up (months)
Phosphorus (mg/dL)
Block 2004 [10] 4.0-5.0 35,783 1.21 (1.14-1.29) 18
Kalantar-Zadeh 2006 [14] 5.0-6.0 36,955 1.20 (1.13-1.29) 24
Rodriguez-Benot 2005 [24] 3.0-5.0 375 1.96 (1.20-3.18) 97.6
Tangri 2010 [30] 3.5-5.5 6,538 0.74 (0.53-1.03) 24
Calcium (mg/dL)
Block 2004 [10] 9.0-9.5 23,168 1.14 (1.06-1.22) 30
Kalantar-Zadeh 2006 [14] 9.0-9.5 36,831 1.06 (1.00-1.12) 24
Tangri 2010 [30] 8.4-9.5 6,843 1.23 (0.95-1.58) 24
Parathyroid hormone (pg/mL)
Dukkipati 2010 [29] 300-600 288 0.96 (0.60-1.55) 63
Floege 2010 [16] 150-300 2,443 1.35 (1.14-1.61) 20.9
Kalantar-Zadeh 2006 [14] 200-300 29,273 1.12 (1.06-1.18) 24
Tangri 2010 [30] 151-300 4,842 0.92 (0.71-1.20) 24
Tentori 2008 [15] 100-300 18,224 1.09 (1.02-1.16) 18.7
  1. CI, confidence interval; RR, risk ratio.
  2. *Sample size includes patients in the reference range plus those with relatively high biochemical parameter values.
  3. †The median or mean (or total, if median was not given) follow-up time in each study.