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Table 4 Mortality risk for relatively low biochemical parameter values versus referent values

From: Is there an association between elevated or low serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease? A meta-analysis

Study Reference range N* RR for low values vs. referent (95% CI) Follow-up (months)
Phosphorus (mg/dL)
Block 2004 [10] 4.0-5.0 13,478 1.01 (0.95-1.08) 18
Kalantar-Zadeh 2006 [14] 5.0-6.0 34,636 0.99 (0.88-1.12) 24
Rodriguez-Benot 2005 [24] 3.0-5.0 170 0.41 (0.05-3.26) 97.6
Tangri 2011 [30] 3.5-5.5 4,776 1.22 (1.01-1.49) 24
Calcium (mg/dL)
Block 2004 [10] 9.0-9.5 28,129 0.81 (0.77-0.85) 30
Kalantar-Zadeh 2006 [14] 9.0-9.5 37,662 0.93 (0.87-0.98) 24
Tangri 2011 [30] 8.4-9.5 3,394 1.35 (0.24-7.48) 24
Parathyroid hormone (pg/mL)
Dukkipati 2010 [29] 300-600 648 0.72 (0.52-0.95) 63
Floege 2010 [16] 150-300 2,595 1.31 (1.14-1.51) 20.9
Kalantar-Zadeh 2006 [14] 200-300 33,758 0.99 (0.94-1.05) 24
Tangri 2011 [30] 151-300 5,071 0.84 (0.61-1.16) 24
Tentori 2008 [15] 100-300 17,648 1.00 (0.93-1.08) 18.7
  1. CI, confidence interval; RR, risk ratio.
  2. *Sample size includes patients in the reference range plus those with relatively low biochemical parameter values.
  3. †The median or mean (or total, if median was not given) follow-up time in each study.