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Table 5 Summary of findings: meta-analyses of mortality risk for relatively high/low biochemical parameter values versus referent values*

From: Is there an association between elevated or low serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease? A meta-analysis

Biochemical parameter Mortality risk for relatively low biochemical parameter values Mortality risk for relatively high biochemical parameter values
Risk ratio (95% CI) I2 Risk ratio (95% CI) I2
Phosphorus 1.02 (0.97-1.08) 30.5% 1.20 (1.15-1.25) 75.2%
Calcium 0.86 (0.83-0.89) 84.0% 1.10 (1.05-1.14) 39.9%
PTH 1.01 (0.97-1.05) 79.8% 1.11 (1.07-1.16) 47.8%
  1. *Statistical heterogeneity: the I2 statistic describes the percent of variation in the risk ratio that is attributable to heterogeneity in a meta-analysis.