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Table 1 Main physicochemical characteristics of engineered nanomaterials investigated - reproduced from[14]

From: An in vitroassessment of panel of engineered nanomaterials using a human renal cell line: cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory response, oxidative stress and genotoxicity

ENM code ENM type Phase XRD Size [nm] TEM Size Primary characteristics by TEM analysis Surface area (BET) [m2/g] Known coating Size in K-SFM (DLS) Ψ Size in RPMI-FCS (DLS) Ψ Zeta potential K-SFM Zeta potential RPMI - FCS
NM101 TiO2 Anatase 9 4-8/50-100 Two structures found; type 1 show agglomerates in the 50–1500 nm range 322 none 221 358 −11.4 −17.7
NM110 ZnO Zincite 70 to > 100 20-250/50-350 Mainly 2 euhedral morphologies: 1) aspect ratio close to 1 (20–250 nm range and few particles of approx. 400 nm) 2) ratio 2 to 7.5 (50–350 nm). Minor amounts of particles with irregular morphologies observed. 14 none 393 453.6 −11.5 −13
NM111 ZnO Zincite 58-93 20-200/10-450 As NM110, but with different size distributions. 1) particles with aspect ratio close to 1 (~90% in the 20–200 nm range); 2) particles with aspect ratio 2 to 8.5 (~90% in the 10–450 nm ratio). 18 Trie-othoxy-capry-lsilane 130 332 362.4 −11.4 −12.6
NM300 Ag Ag 7$
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8-47 (av.: 17.5) Mainly euhedral NM; minor fractions have either elongated (aspect ratio up to ~ 5) or sub-spherical morphology NA none 87 51.59 −10.2 −13.3
NM400 MWCNT - - D: 5-35
L: 700-3000
Irregular entangled kinked and mostly bent MWCNT (10–20 walls). Some CNTs were capped and some cases multiple caps were found due to overgrowth. Fe/Co catalysts (6–9 nm, average 7.5 nm) were found inside the tubes. 298 none * * * *
NM402 MWCNT - - D: 6-20
L: 700-4000
Entangled irregular, mostly bent MWCNT (6–14 walls). Some tubes were capped by unknown material. Some nano-onions (5–10 nm) and amorphous carbon structures mixed with Fe (5–20 nm). Residual catalyst was observed. Individual catalyst particles up to 150 nm were also detected. 225 none * * * *
NRCWE001 TiO2 Rutile§ 10 80-400 Irregular euhedral particles detected by TEM 99 none 349 337.5 −11.6 −14.7
NRCWE002 TiO2 Rutile 10 80-400 Irregular euhedral particles detected by TEM 84 Positive charged 314 378.8 −13.2 −12.7
NRCWE003 TiO2 Rutile 10 80-400 Irregular euhedral particles detected by TEM 84 Negative charged 384 423.6 −15.3 −13.2
NRCWE004 TiO2 Rutile App. 100 1-4/10-100/100-200/1000-2000 Five different particle types were identified: 1) irregular spheres, 1–4 nm (av. Diameter); 2) irregular euhedral particles, 10–100 nm (longest dimension); 3) fractal-like structures in long chains, 100–200 nm (longest dimension); 4) big irregular polyhedral particles, 1-2 μm (longest dimension); 5) large irregular particles with jagged boundaries, 1–2 μm (longest dimension).    396 482.6 −11.3 −12.4
  1. 1 percent rutile found in one of two samples analyzed.
  2. $ wet XRD in capillary tube.
  3. £ dried samples.
  4. # sample with deposits.
  5. § ca. 6% anatase was observed in one of two samples analyzed.
  6. * Not detectable by DLS due to the very large aspect ratio.
  7. Ψ Intensity based size average in biological media after 15 mins.
  8. Zincite –mineral form of ZnO.
  9. PDI (polydispersity index) values were under 0.45 for all given DLS values.
  10. Abbreviations:
  11. D, Diameter.
  12. DLS, Dynamic Light Scattering.
  13. ENM, Engineered nanomaterial.
  14. L, Length.
  15. XRD, X ray diffraction.