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Table 1 Characteristics of studies reporting the relationship between hyperuricemia and CKD

From: Is hyperuricemia an independent risk factor for new-onset chronic kidney disease?: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on observational cohort studies

Author/year Country Study type Follow-up (mean) Source Selective criteria for hyperuricaemia Defination of CKD Events AOR (AHR) (95% CI) Adjustments
HPU Control
Ryoo et al. [[16]] 2013 Korea Prospective cohort 4 years CP >7.0 mg/dL eGFR < 60 44/3910 66/14868 1.96 (1.28–2.99)# Age, BMI, Diabetes, smoking, alcohol, blood pressure, exercise, hyperlipidaemia
Chang et al. [[17]] 2013 Taiwan Prospective cohort study 4 years (>40 years old) CP >7.5 mg/dL (male) and >6.5 mg/dL (female) ACR > 30 N.R. N.R. 1.42 (1.27-1.59)& Age, gender, BMI, Diabetes, blood pressure, Hypercholesteraemia, education
3.54 (2.11,5.94)#
Zoppini et al. [[18]] 2012 Italy Retrospective cohort 5 years DP >7.0 mg/dL (male); >6.5 mg/dL (female) eGFR < 60 or macro-albuminuria 47/159 147/1290 1.20 (1.03–1.57)& 2.01 BMI, smoking, blood pressure, albuminuria, duration of diabetes, HbA1c
(1.10–3.74)#
Sonoda et al. [[19]] 2011 Japan Prospective cohort 4–5 years CP >7.0 mg/dL (male); >6.0 mg/dL (female) eGFR < 60 N.R. N.R. 1.09 (1.01–1.18)& BMI, BP, LDL, HDL, smoke, eGFR
Kawashima et al. [[20]] 2011 Japan Retrospective cohort 95.2 CP >7.0 mg/dL eGFR < 60 32/166 68/1119 3.99 (2.59–6.15)# Age, BMI, HDL, BP, blood
(±66.7) months
Mok et al. [[21]] 2011 Korea Severance cohort 6.5 years CP >6.6 mg/dL (male); >4.6 mg/dL (female) GFR <60 226/3450 540/11489 2.1 (1.6–2.9) male*; BMI, Diabetes, blood pressure, Hypercholesteraemia
1.3 (1.0-1.8) female*
Yamada et al. [[22]] 2011 Japan Retrospective cohort 5 years CP >6.7 mg/dL (male); >4.8 mg/dL (female) eGFR <60 343/3119 282/11280 1.42 (1.28–1.58) male&; Age, BMI, Diabetes, smoking, alcohol, blood pressure, albuminuria, hyperlipidaemia
1.32 (1.12–1.56) female&
Wang et al. [[23]] 2011 China Prospective cohort 3 years CP >7.0 mg/dL (male); >6.0 mg/dL (female) GFR <60 N.R. N.R. 1.03 (1.01–1.06)& Age, gender, BMI, smoking, alcohol, exercise, Hypercholesteraemia, education, hyperlipidaemia
Jalal et al. [[24]] 2010 America Prospective observational study. 6 years DP N.R. ACR > 30 N.R. N.R. 1.80 (1.20-2.80)# Age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, albuminuria, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, serum creatinine, medication for CKD or hyperuricaemia
Yen et al. [[25]] 2009 Taiwan Prospective cohort 32.4 months CP > 6.6 mg/dL eGFR < 60 84/312 60/488 0.997 (0.847–1.175)& Age, gender, BMI, Diabetes, smoking, blood pressure, Hypercholesteraemia, albuminuria, serum creatinine
(>65 years old)
Weiner et al. [[26]] 2008 America Prospective cohort 8.5 years CP >7.4 mg/dL (male); >6.1 mg/dl (female) eGFR < 60 260/3167 481/10171 1.07 (1.01–1.14)& Age, gender, race, diabetes, BP, cardiac disease, smoke, alcohol use, education, lipid, albumin
Obermayr et al. [[27]] 2008 Austria Retrospective cohort 7 years CP 7.0–8.9 mg/dL eGFR < 60 N.R. N.R. 1.26 (1.02–1.55)& Age, gender, Diabetes, LDL, hyperlipidaemia, medication for CKD or hyperuricaemia
Domrongkitchaiporn et al. [[28]] 2005 Thailand Retrospective cohort 12 years CP 6.30–14.50 mg/dL eGFR <60 N.R. N.R. 1.82 (1.12–2.98)# BMI, Diabetes, smoking, blood pressure, Hypercholesteraemia, albuminuria
  1. &AOR calculated using uric acid level for incidence of onset of CKD; #AOR calculated using hyperuricemia individuals compared with normal individuals for new-onset CKD; *AOR calculated using individuals of the last uric acid quartiles compared with first uric acid quartiles for the risk for CKD; N.R.: not reported; eGFR <60 means eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2; ACR >30 means urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g; HPU: hyperuricemia; CP: community-based population; DP: patients with diabetes mellitus.