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Table 2 Summary of relative risks for associations between SUA and development of CKD

From: Is hyperuricemia an independent risk factor for new-onset chronic kidney disease?: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on observational cohort studies

Subgroup Reference SOR Tests for heterogeneity
(95% CI) Q P I 2(%)
Geographic region      
Asia [17, 19, 23, 25] 1.05 (1.03-1.08) 30.7 <0.001* 90
Asia# [19, 23, 25] 1.04 (1.01-1.06) 1.76 0.42 0.00
Western [18, 26, 27] 1.17 (1.11-1.22) 0.64 0.724 0.00
Population      
Healthy people [16, 17, 20, 28] 2.59 (2.07-3.23) 6.08 0.02* 69
Diabetic [18, 24] 1.90 (1.30-2.78) 0.07 0.79 0
Sex      
Male [21, 22, 26] 1.43 (1.05-1.94) 32.98 0.001* 94
Female [21, 22, 26] 1.21 (1.04-1.41) 4.57 0.07 63
Follow-up      
<5 years [2, 19, 23, 25] 1.03 (1.01-1.06) 0.19 0.66 0
[16, 17] 2.49 (1.79-3.46) 2.99 0.08 67
≥5 years [17, 18, 26, 27] 1.09 (1.04-1.14) 2.63 0.45 0
[18, 20, 24, 28] 2.64 (2.09-3.32) 6.48 0.09 54
  1. SOR: summary odds ratio; #Studies in Asian areas (except study by Chang et al. [17]); OR calculated using continuous variables; per 1 mg/dL increase of uric acid levels; OR calculated using dichotomous variables; hyperuricemia compared with normal; *heterogeneity exists.