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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients in the good sleepers group and the poor sleepers group

From: Association between sleep quality and cardiovascular damage in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

Characteristic Overall Good sleepers Poor sleepers P value
(n = 427) (n = 95) (n = 332)
Age (years) 39 ± 15 38 ± 13 39 ± 15 0.141
Sex ratio (M/F) 260/167 56/39 204/128 0.401
Duration of CKD (months) 5 (1–24) 6 (1–24) 5 (1–24) 0.761
Current smoker, n (%) 79 (18.5%) 20 (21.1%) 59 (17.8%) 0.457
Alcohol intake, n (%) 26 (6.1%) 7 (7.4%) 19 (5.7%) 0.626
BMI (kg/m2) 22.8 ± 3.6 22.7 ± 4.0 22.8 ± 3.7 0.784
ACEI/ARB (%) 240 (56.2) 56 (58.9) 184 (55.4) 0.560
Diabetes (%) 44 (10.3) 6 (6.3) 39 (11.7) 0.087
Proteinuria (g/24 h) 1.41 (0.46–3.82) 1.40 (0.46–4.12) 1.42 (0.46–3.76) 0.793
Hemoglobin (g/L) 118 ± 29 122 ± 25 117 ± 29 0.261
Albumin (g/L) 33.3 ± 8.9 33.0 ± 9.0 33.3 ± 8.9 0.810
Globulin( g/L) 23.5 ± 5.1 23.2 ± 5.2 23.5 ± 5.0 0.713
Serum cystatin C (mg/L) 1.5 (1.0-3.5) 1.4 (1.0-2.5) 1.4 (0.9-3.4) 0.450
Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 104 (69–355) 89 (66–214) 114 (70–423) 0.024
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 69.4 (15.8-110.9) 85.3 (32.3-121.2) 65.9 (13.2-109.6) 0.040
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.0 (4.0-6.8) 5.2 (4.2-6.6) 5.0 (4.0-7.1) 0.596
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.7 (1.1-2.6) 1.8 (1.1-2.9) 1.8 (1.1-2.7) 0.513
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.1 (2.3-4.5) 3.2 (2.6-4.3) 3.1 (2.3-4.6) 0.426
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.5 0.932
Glucose (mmol/L) 4.7 (4.2-5.3) 4.6 (4.2-5.0) 4.7 (4.2-5.3) 0.391
Calcium (mg/dL) 9.2 ± 0.7 9.1 ± 0.7 9.2 ± 0.7 0.139
Phosphate (mmol/L) 1.4 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.5 0.274
iPTH (pg/mL) 54.6 (32.1-150.2) 48.1 (32.0-83.2) 54..7 (31.1-153.0) 0.173
Serum uric acid (umol/L) 440 ± 142 441 ± 139 441 ± 143 0.967
LVEF (%) 66.9 ± 7.7 67.9 ± 6.7 66.7 ± 7.9 0.330
LVMI (g/m2.7) 46.2 ± 14.0 41.7 ± 9.5 47.1 ± 14.6 0.019
LVH (%) 158 (40.2) 18 (28.1) 140 (41.3) 0.011
E/A ratio 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.4 0.027
CIMT (mm) 0.66 ± 0.20 0.64 ± 0.19 0.67 ± 0.20 0.443
Hypertension (%) 186 (43.6) 43 (45.3) 143 (43.1) 0.813
SBP (mmHg) 138.2 ± 22.2 137.9 ± 20.9 138.3 ± 22.5 0.921
DBP (mmHg) 84.8 ± 13.1 85.1 ± 11.0 84.7 ± 13.5 0.826
Depression (%) 176 (41.2) 12 (12.6) 164 (49.4) <0.001
BDI-SF score 3 (1–7) 1 (0–2) 4 (2–8) <0.001
PSQI score 9.4 ± 2.5 3.5 ± 1.3 10.9 ± 2.7 <0.001
CKD stage     
CKD(I- II) (%) 222 55 (24.8) 167 (75.2) 0.117
CKD (III- V) (%) 205 40 (19.5) 165 (80.5)  
  1. (SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; BMI: body mass index, eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; iPTH: intact parathyroid hormone; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; BDI-SF: short form of the Beck Depression Inventory; CKD: Chronic kidney disease; CIMT: Carotid intima-media thickness; E/A ratio: Early/late diastolic peak flow velocity ratio; LVH: Left ventricular hypertrophy; LVMI: left ventricular mass index; Serum calcium is corrected by the following formula:[calcium] (mg/dL) = measured [calcium] + ( 4.0-[serum albumin(mg/dl)]) × 0.8, PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index).