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Table 2 Relationship of estimated Net Acid Excretion with Albuminuria, Kidney Dysfunction, and CKD Stages and Risk Groups in NHANES participants (N = 11,285)

From: Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease among adults in the United States

Parameter UACR+$ > 30 mg/g eGFR$ < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 Stages of CKD#,** Risk groups of CKD@**
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted     
Quintile 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference
Quintile 2 1.39 (1.09–1.78) 1.29 (0.98–1.70) 1.47 (1.11–1.95) 0.92 (0.76–1.11)
Quintile 3 1.33 (1.08–1.63) 1.84 (1.38–2.45) 1.79 (1.36–2.37) 1.30 (1.08–1.57)
Quintile 4 1.44 (1.15–1.80) 2.35 (1.78–3.12) 2.23 (1.63–3.05) 1.65 (1.41–1.93)
Quintile 5 1.71 (1.40–2.07) 2.63 (2.07–3.34) 2.51 (1.73–3.64) 1.99 (1.67–2.37)
ptrend <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Adjusted*     
Quintile 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference
Quintile 2 1.25 (0.80–1.94) 1.13 (0.89–1.44) 0.94 (0.52–1.70) 0.75 (0.60–0.94)
Quintile 3 1.36 (1.04–1.78) 1.06 (0.82–1.36) 1.10 (0.74–1.65) 0.92 (0.74–1.15)
Quintile 4 1.27 (0.98–1.66) 1.17 (0.86–1.58) 1.23 (0.91–1.65) 1.08 (0.88–1.29)
Quintile 5 1.57 (1.20–2.05) 1.37 (0.91–2.05) 1.20 (0.87–1.62) 1.10 (0.91–1.30)
ptrend 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.01
  1. Quintile 1: min to 37.35 mEq/day; Quintile 2: >37.35 to 49.62 mEq/day; Quintile 3: >49.62 to 60.89 mEq/day; Quintile 4: >60.89 to 75.65 mEq/day; Quintile 5: >75.65 to max mEq/day.
  2. +UACR- Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio.
  3. #CKD Stages defined by KDOQI Classification.
  4. @CKD Risk Groups defined by KDIGO Nomenclature.
  5. *Adjustment for demographics (age, gender and race/ethnicity), socio-economic status (education, poverty income ratio), body mass index, risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardio-vascular diseases [CVD i.e. (coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure or stroke)]), total caloric intake, and body mass index.
  6. OR (95% CI) = Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval).
  7. $From multiple logistic regression.
  8. **From ordinal logistic regression.