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Table 3 Relationship of estimated Net Acid Excretion with Albuminuria, Kidney Dysfunction, and CKD Stages and Risk Groups in participants with hypertension but without diabetes (N = 3,204)

From: Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease among adults in the United States

Parameter UACR+$ > 30 mg/g eGFR$ < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 Stages of CKD#** Risk groups of CKD@**
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted     
Quintile 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference
Quintile 2 0.87 (0.53, 1.44) 1.38 (0.71, 2.31) 1.02 (0.75–1.40) 0.94 (0.70–1.28)
Quintile 3 0.83 (0.53, 1.28) 1.57 (0.99, 2.49) 1.37 (0.89–2.11) 1.32 (0.94–1.86)
Quintile 4 1.07 (0.65, 2.15) 2.21 (1.38, 3.55) 1.64 (1.12–2.39) 1.58 (1.12–2.23)
Quintile 5 1.30 (1.02, 2.27) 2.02 (1.31, 3.12) 2.51 (1.74–3.61) 2.22 (1.54–3.21)
ptrend 0.02 0.02 0.001 <0.0001
Adjusted*     
Quintile 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference
Quintile 2 0.94 (0.49–1.80) 1.43 (0.96–2.14) 0.65 (0.58–1.14) 0.75 (0.55–1.02)
Quintile 3 1.47 (0.75–2.85) 1.59 (0.96–2.63) 1.00 (0.60–1.58) 0.98 (0.65–1.41)
Quintile 4 1.11 (0.69–1.76) 1.75 (0.92–3.31) 0.79 (0.43–1.30) 0.81 (0.55–1.20)
Quintile 5 1.31 (0.90–1.91) 1.75 (1.11–2.75) 1.11 (0.56–2.91) 1.00 (0.61–1.55)
ptrend 0.04 0.01 0.10 0.08
  1. Quintile 1: min to 37.35 mEq/day; Quintile 2: >37.35 to 49.62 mEq/day; Quintile 3: >49.62 to 60.89 mEq/day; Quintile 4: >60.89 to 75.65 mEq/day; Quintile 5: >75.65 to max mEq/day.
  2. +UACR- Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio.
  3. # CKD Stages defined by KDOQI Classification.
  4. @CKD Risk Groups defined by KDIGO Nomenclature.
  5. *Adjustment for demographics (age, gender and race/ethnicity), socio-economic status (education, poverty income ratio), body mass index, and risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardio-vascular diseases [CVD i.e. (coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure or stroke)]), total caloric intake, and body mass index.
  6. OR (95% CI) = Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval).
  7. $From multiple logistic regression.
  8. **From ordinal logistic regression.