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Table 4 Relationship of estimated Net Acid Excretion with Albuminuria, Kidney Dysfunction, and CKD Stages and Risk Groups in participants without hypertension and without diabetes (n = 6,772)

From: Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease among adults in the United States

Parameter UACR+$ > 30 mg/g eGFR$ < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 Stages of CKD#,** Risk groups of CKD@**
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted     
Quintile 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference
Quintile 2 1.12 (0.77, 1.64) 1.26 (0.93, 1.69) 1.57 (1.11–2.22) 0.96 (0.75–1.23)
Quintile 3 1.62 (1.09, 2.39) 1.79 (1.23, 2.59) 1.88 (1.22–2.90) 1.64 (1.34–2.01)
Quintile 4 1.57 (1.16, 2.14) 2.09 (1.46, 2.99) 3.29 (2.06–5.27) 1.93 (1.51–2.46)
Quintile 5 1.79 (1.21, 2.65) 2.52 (1.80, 3.52) 3.51 (1.94–6.36) 2.99 (2.29–3.88)
ptrend 0.04 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Adjusted*     
Quintile 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference
Quintile 2 0.96 (0.58–1.58) 0.82 (0.44–1.51) 1.26 (0.66–2.40) 0.77 (0.55–1.06)
Quintile 3 1.23 (0.80–1.88) 0.85 (0.58–1.25) 1.27 (0.70–2.31) 1.03 (0.77–1.37)
Quintile 4 1.09 (0.72–1.63) 1.07 (0.78–1.45) 1.13 (0.72–1.78) 0.90 (0.63–1.28)
Quintile 5 1.58 (1.04–2.39) 1.42 (1.07–2.10) 1.41 (0.92–2.16) 1.12 (0.75–1.67)
ptrend 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.07
  1. Quintile 1: min to 37.35 mEq/day; Quintile 2: >37.35 to 49.62 mEq/day; Quintile 3: >49.62 to 60.89 mEq/day; Quintile 4: >60.89 to 75.65 mEq/day; Quintile 5: >75.65 to max mEq/day.
  2. +UACR- urinary albumin to creatinine ratio.
  3. #CKD Stages defined by KDOQI Classification.
  4. @CKD Risk Groups defined by KDIGO Nomenclature.
  5. *Adjustment for demographics (age, gender and race/ethnicity), socio-economic status (education, poverty income ratio), body mass index, and risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, self-reported cardio-vascular diseases [CVD i.e. (coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure or stroke)]), total caloric intake, and body mass index.
  6. OR (95% CI) = Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval).
  7. $From multiple logistic regression.
  8. **From ordinal logistic regression.