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Table 6 Simulation results based on 1000 data sets with sample size of 25 -- Per cent censoring (40%, 25%)

From: Assessing the agreement of biomarker data in the presence of left-censoring

Per cent censoring True ρ True ρ c Method Mean ρ ^ c Relative bias (%) Empirical SD Mean SE The percentage of 95% confidence intervals that include true value of CCC
(40%, 25%) 0.25 0.238 1. Delete the pair 0.1357 −42.98 0.2485 0.2130 85.5
    2. Replace by LOD 0.1703 −28.45 0.4223 0.1530 80.1
    3. Replace by 0.5 × LOD 0.1822 −23.45 0.2936 0.1535 74.3
    4. Replace by c × LOD 0.1751 −26.45 0.2033 0.1533 75.4
    5. ML 0.2193 −7.86 0.1948 0.1824 93.0
  0.50 0.476 1. Delete the pair 0.2667 −43.97 0.2296 0.1982 82.3
    2. Replace by LOD 0.3628 −23.78 0.2088 0.1334 78.6
    3. Replace by 0.5 × LOD 0.3307 −30.53 0.2283 0.1350 71.7
    4. Replace by c × LOD 0.3304 −30.59 0.2416 0.1352 72.8
    5. ML 0.4449 −6.53 0.1693 0.1570 93.3
  0.75 0.714 1. Delete the pair 0.4600 −35.57 0.2050 0.1608 75.9
    2. Replace by LOD 0.5599 −21.58 0.2482 0.0947 78.4
    3. Replace by 0.5 × LOD 0.5246 −26.53 0.2619 0.0961 72.8
    4. Replace by c × LOD 0.5266 −26.25 0.2678 0.0964 74.0
    5. ML 0.6847 −4.10 0.1180 0.1074 92.2
  1. Abbreviations: LLD Lower Limit of Detection, ML Maximum Likelihood, C = Random number from uniform distribution (0, 1), CI confidence interval, Relative bias = Mean ρ ^ c True ρ c True ρ c ×100%, CCC5= ρ c = 2 COV X , Y VAR X + VAR Y + E X E Y 2 .