Response of vascular endothelial cells in human kidney in organ culture to TL1A. Confocal images of kidney organ culture incubated with either culture media alone or with TL1A (0.2 μg/ml) or TNF (5 ng/ml) for 3 hours at 37°C. (A-C) cultures incubated in media alone show EC staining for NF-κBp65 (green) in both the glomerular (inset) and in peritubular vassels. Some peritubular vessels EC showed positive staining for DR3 (red). (D-F) Cultures treated with TL1A show co-staining for NF-κBp65 (green) and DR3 (red) in EC of some blood vessel (arrows). Inset; show no signal for NF-κBp65 on glomerular EC. (G-I) In contrast, TNF-treated cultures show a strong signal for NF-κB p65 (green) in EC of glomerular (inset) and peritubular blood vessels. DR3 (red) is present only in EC of peritubular blood vessels negative for NF-κB p65. (Original Mags; x40).