TL1A induced E-selectin expression in HUVEC. HUVEC transfected with mock vector or DR3 were treated with 0.2 μg/ml of TL1A for 2 and 4 hours. Cell surface E-selectin was measured by flow cytometry. (A) There was no significant change in E-selectin expression for HUVEC transfected with mock vector after TL1A treatment. In contrast, a significant increase in E-selectin expression was detected in HUVEC transfected with DR3 compared with empty vector at each of the two time points measured (1.5 ± 0.2vs.2.7 ± 0.5 and1.7 ± 0.7vs.3.1 ± 0.6) (p < 0.05). There was significant increase in E-selectin expression at 4 hours after TL1A treatment for the HUVEC transfected with DR3 but not at 2 hour time point. Results were mean of units ± SE from 3 experiments. (B) There was no difference in E-selectin expression between HUVEC transfected with empty vector and DR3 vector after TNF treatment.