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Table 3 Association of calcium with renal replacement therapy and rapid renal function progression

From: Low serum calcium is associated with poor renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease stages 3–4 patients

  Quartile of serum calcium level (mg/dL)
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
HR (95% CI) (<9.0) (9.0 - 9.4) (9.4 - 9.8) (>9.8)
Renal replacement therapy    
Unadjusted 2.12 (1.55-2.91)* 1.26 (0.90-1.76) 1.15 (0.79-1.68) 1 (reference)
Model 1 1.52 (1.10-2.10)* 1.32 (0.94-1.86) 0.97 (0.67-1.42) 1 (reference)
Model 2 1.64 (1.19-2.26)* 1.32 (0.94-1.86) 1.05 (0.72-1.54) 1 (reference)
Model 3 2.34 (1.65-3.31)* 1.58 (1.11-2.25)* 1.51 (1.01-2.25)* 1 (reference)
Model 4 2.12 (1.49-3.02)* 1.50 (1.05-2.15)* 1.42 (0.95-2.12) 1 (reference)
Rapid renal function progression    
Unadjusted 1.44 (1.11-1.88)* 1.18 (0.90-1.54) 0.94 (0.70-1.26) 1 (reference)
Model 1 1.42 (1.06-1.91)* 1.28 (0.95-1.71) 0.93 (0.67-1.28) 1 (reference)
Model 2 1.56 (1.15-2.10)* 1.30 (0.97-1.75) 0.98 (0.71-1.36) 1 (reference)
Model 3 1.72 (1.25-2.35)* 1.40 (1.03-1.91)* 1.15 (0.82-1.61) 1 (reference)
Model 4 1.65 (1.19-2.27)* 1.35 (0.99-1.84) 1.11 (0.79-1.56) 1 (reference)
  1. Model 1 adjusts for age, gender, eGFR, log(UPCR).
  2. Model 2 adjusts for covariates in model 1 plus diabetes mellitus, cardio vascular disease, HbA1c, mean BP.
  3. Model 3 adjusts for covariates in model 2 plus hemoglobin, albumin, log(cholesterol), ln(CRP), body mass index.
  4. Model 4 adjusts for covariates in model 3 plus phosphorus, phosphate binder, PTH.
  5. HR, Hazard ratio; eGFR, Estimated glomerular filtration rate; UPCR, Urine protein to creatinine ratio; HbA1c, Glycosylated hemoglobin; BP, Blood pressure; PTH, Parathyroid hormone.
  6. *(p <0.05) indicates a significantly different from reference group.
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