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Table 4 Mineral disorder and risk of renal outcomes

From: Low serum calcium is associated with poor renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease stages 3–4 patients

   Hazard ratio (95% CI) for renal replacement therapy Odd ratio (95% CI) for rapid renal function progression
P > 4.2 mg/dl Ca > 9.1 mg/dl Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
No Yes 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
No No 1.58 (0.94-2.66) 1.21 (0.71-2.07) 1.15 (0.85-1.57) 1.07 (0.76-1.51)
Yes Yes 4.76 (3.01-7.53)* 1.53 (0.94-2.47) 2.37 (1.76-3.20)* 1.26 (0.88-1.79)
Yes No 6.64 (4.28-10.32)* 2.31 (1.45-3.67)* 2.70 (2.02-3.59)* 1.68 (1.20-2.35)*
  1. Adjusts the variables including age, gender, eGFR, log(UPCR), diabetes mellitus, cardio vascular disease, HbA1c, mean BP, hemoglobin, albumin, log(cholesterol), ln(CRP), body mass index, phosphate binder and PTH.
  2. eGFR, Estimated glomerular filtration rate; UPCR, Urine protein to creatinine ratio; HbA1c, Glycosylated hemoglobin; BP, Blood pressure; PTH, Parathyroid hormone.
  3. *(p <0.05) indicates a significantly different from reference group.
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