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Table 1 REGARDS participant characteristics by county poverty level

From: Low income, community poverty and risk of end stage renal disease

  All Concentrated poverty Neither Affluence
County poverty   High outlier Extremely high Very high High   Low/Very low poverty Low outlier poverty
23,314 793 (3.4%) 786 (3.4%) 1,747 (7.5%) 4,198 (18.0%) 11,631 (49.9%) 2,147 (9.2%) 2,012 (8.6%)
Demographics  
Age in years (SD) 64.8 (9.4) 64.8 (9.3) 64.3 (9.4) 64.1 (9.5) 64.4 (9.4) 65.2 (9.5) 65.0 (9.4) 64.8 (9.3)
Female, % 55.5 57.1 53.3 58.2 58.0 56.2 48.1 51.7*
Black race, % 41.0 77.8 52.8 37.5 47.5 42.3 26.7 18.3*
Stroke belt resident, % 61.8 0 98.8 96.5 91.4 57.1 0 72.5*
Urban/Rural status, %         
Rural 9.3 0.8 33.6 41.1 7.6 5.5 8.0 2.7*
Micropolitan 13.4 0.9 34.1 41.8 14.2 9.5 7.4 13.2*
Metropolitan 77.2 98.4 32.3 17.1 78.2 85.0 84.6 84.1*
Socioeconomic status  
Education (%)         
  Less than high school 12.5 18.1 18.1 18.4 16.1 11.1 8.5 8.2*
  High school graduate 25.8 30.0 26.5 29.9 27.6 24.6 27.0 22.4
  Some college 27.1 29.6 22.3 22.8 26.2 27.5 29.8 28.7
  College graduate and above 34.6 22.4 33.2 28.9 30.0 36.9 34.7 40.7
No health insurance, % 6.7 6.7 10.9 9.2 8.3 6.3 4.7 4.2*
Annual household income, %         
  <$20,000 18.0 24.1 26.1 24.5 21.6 16.7 13.5 11.9*
  $20,000 to <35,000 24.1 28.2 24.4 24.8 25.2 23.5 25.2 21.7*
  $35,000 to <75,000 29.8 24.6 24.7 26.5 28.8 30.4 32.4 33.2*
  ≥$75,000 15.5 10.1 10.9 12.9 11.7 16.6 17.2 21.5*
  Refused to provide income 12.5 13.0 13.9 11.2 12.7 12.8 11.8 11.7*
Clinical factors  
Estimated GFR (CKD-EPI) (SD) 85.1 (19.9) 87.1 (22.8) 87.3 (20.5) 85.3 (20.2) 86.5 (20.3) 84.6 (19.9) 84.2 (18.7) 84.7 (18.1)*
Diabetes mellitus, % 22.0 23.7 26.4 26.3 25.2 21.6 16.4 17.4*
Hypertension, % 59.4 69.2 64.1 62.8 64.4 58.1 53.9 53.4*
  1. Note: Categories of county poverty were defined as: high outlier poverty, extremely high poverty, very high poverty, high poverty, neither, high affluence (low/very low poverty) and outlier affluence (low outlier poverty) [26]. Outlier counties are those that are more impoverished or affluent than would be expected given the level of poverty or affluence of the adjoining counties. The “stroke belt” includes inland areas of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; as well as Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana.
  2. *p < 0.05, chi-square test or ANOVA method.
  3. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation.