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Table 3 Hazard ratios for incident ESRD by county poverty and individual household income accounting for the competing risk of mortality

From: Low income, community poverty and risk of end stage renal disease

  Unadjusted Model 1* Model 2**
n = 23,314 n = 23,295 n = 23,295
ESRD, total events = 158    
County poverty levels (number of ESRD events)    
  High outliers (8) 1.54 (0.75-3.20) 1.03 (0.50-2.13) 0.96 (0.46-2.00)
  Extremely high (7) 1.36 (0.63-2.95) 1.20 (0.55-2.61) 1.10 (0.51--2.39)
  Very high (13) 1.14 (0.63-2.05) 1.25 (0.69-2.28) 1.16 (0.64-2.10)
  High (31) 1.13 (0.74-1.72) 1.09 (0.71-1.66) 1.04 (0.68-1.58)
  Neither (76) Ref Ref Ref
  Low and very low (14) 1.00 (0.56-1.76) 1.21 (0.69-2.14) 1.19 (0.68-2.10)
  Low outliers (9) 0.68 (0.34-1.36) 1.00 (0.49-2.04) 1.01 (0.50-2.06)
Demographics    
Age, years, continuous   1.02 (1.01-1.04) 1.02 (1.00-1.03)
Male   1.63 (1.19-2.22) 1.82 (1.34-2.49)
Black (compared to white) race   4.18 (2.89-6.06) 3.59 (2.47-5.23)
Socioeconomic status    
Education < High School (H.S.) compared to > =H.S.   1.18 (0.78, 1.78) 0.98 (0.64-1.51)
Income category, %    
  Refused    2.17 (0.87-5.43)
  <$20,000    3.75 (1.62-8.64)
  $20,000 to <35,000    4.55 (2.04-10.13)
  $35,000 to <75,000    1.56 (0.66-3.64)
  ≥$75,000    Ref
  1. *Adjusted for county poverty, age, sex, race and education.
  2. **Adjusted for county poverty, age, sex, race, education and income.